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Should You Really Put a Steak on a Black Eye?

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A kid at my son's playground recently got a nasty shiner and I overheard a nanny telling the kid's mom that she should put a cold steak on the eye to help with the swelling. I immediately remembered all those cartoons I watched when I was kid, and how they were always putting big, thick, raw steaks on black eyes. Hmmm, I thought, maybe the nanny was right. Maybe meat is better than a cold compress, or ice. I ran home and started researching at once.

Turns out, as you might expect, there are many differing opinions, although I couldn't find one doctor or qualified professional who recommended putting any cut of meat on the eye.

A black eye, or shiner, or periorbital hematoma occurs when blood accumulates around the eye socket, where there's a lot of empty space. As the blood soaks into the area, pigments are released, not unlike a bruise, causing that dramatic discoloration and swelling.

The thinking behind the steak, at least according to some, is that the meat draws out water build-up, which reduces swelling. Plus, it's cold (if taken from the fridge) and malleable, thus form-fitting and comfortable after such a contusion.

Another theory floating around out there is that back in the old days, when an ice box was really just a gigantic block of ice in a box, meat was sometimes used as an ice-substitute because the ice itself was so valuable and hard to come by. One didn't want to chip away at the block because then it wouldn't last as long.

But the problem with a raw steak, or even a frozen one, is that there are likely bacteria on the meat, which is why no one really recommends it.

So unless you're a cartoon character, you should probably stick to more traditional remedies, and be sure to see your doctor to make sure it's just a nasty-looking bruise and nothing more serious.

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The Body
11 Facts About the Thumb
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The human body is an amazing thing. For each one of us, it's the most intimate object we know. And yet most of us don't know enough about it: its features, functions, quirks, and mysteries. Our series The Body explores human anatomy, part by part. Think of it as a mini digital encyclopedia with a dose of wow.

When it comes to the fingers on your hand, the thumb definitely does its own thing. Thumbs only have two bones, so they're obviously shorter, and they play a very important role that no other finger can claim; thanks to their unique saddle-like joint shape, and a little muscle known as the abductor pollicis brevis, you can bend and stretch your thumbs opposite your fingers to grip things. This is why they're known as "opposable thumbs." To bring you these 11 facts about the thumb, Mental Floss spoke with three experts on this unique digit: Barbara Bergin, an orthopedic surgeon in Houston; Loren Fishman, medical director of Manhattan Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, in NYC; and Ryan Katz, attending hand surgeon at the Curtis Hand Center, located at the Medstar Union Memorial Hospital in Baltimore.

1. OPPOSABLE THUMBS MAY HAVE FREED UP OUR ANCESTORS' MOUTHS FOR LANGUAGE.

The evolution of a thumb helped our ancestors evolve to be better at defense, allowing for throwing and clubbing activities. Moreover, Fishman says, it may have even contributed to our cognitive function. "Some say this is why we have language," he says, "because we can hold things in our hands and [therefore] use our mouths for something else—such as discussing the functions of the thumb."

2. THUMBS HAVE THEIR OWN PULSE.

You might have noticed that medical professionals take a pulse with the middle and index finger. The reason is because there's a big artery in the thumb, the princeps pollicis artery, and arteries pulse, making it difficult to feel a pulse in a neck if you're using your thumb.

3. THE THUMB SEPARATES US FROM OTHER ANIMALS. MOSTLY.

"The thumb is wonderful. It evolved in such a way that we can use it to do so many amazing things, and it's one of the things that separates us from other animals," Bergin says. A handful of other animals, mostly primates, have opposable thumbs, or toes, as the case may be. These include orangutans, chimpanzees, a phylum of frogs known as phyllomedusa, some lemurs, and giant pandas—although their thumb-like apparatus is really just an extra sesamoid bone that acts like a thumb.

4. TOES CAN BECOME THUMBS.

If you should lose a thumb, fear not, says Katz. "It can be rebuilt by surgeons using your big toe." This specialized surgery uses microvascular surgery techniques to transfer your big toe to your hand, where it will function almost exactly as your thumb did. "The toe is then brought to life by sewing together small arteries and veins under a microscope," Katz says, a complicated surgery that has become vastly more sophisticated over the years. The second toe can be used too, as you can see in this medical journal, but we warn you: It's not for the faint of heart.

5. … BUT IS A THUMB WORTH LOSING A TOE OVER?

It may not seem like a big deal to lose one thumb—after all, you've got another one. But Katz cites the American Medical Association's "Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment" [PDF], which states your thumb is so important that a complete amputation "will result in a 40 percent impairment to the whole hand." In fact, they claim that it would take "a complete amputation of the middle, ring, and small fingers to equal the impairment of an amputated thumb."

6. IT'S BETTER THAN HAVING YOUR HAND SEWN TO YOUR FOOT.

Katz also points out that "there used to be a common surgical procedure for thumb reconstruction, where the patient's hand was sewn to their foot for a period of time." This procedure was called the Nicoladani procedure, after the German surgical innovator Carol Nicoladoni. "It was a precursor to transplant surgery and plastic or reconstructive surgery as we know it today," he says.

7. YOUR THUMB MAKES AN ASTONISHINGLY WIDE VARIETY OF MOTIONS.

Other than pinching and grasping, Katz points out that the thumb "translates, rotates, and flexes all at once." This coordinated set of motions provides strength and dexterity. "Thus it's the thumb that allows us to easily pen an essay, turn a nut, pick up a coin, or button a shirt."

8. THAT DEXTERITY ALSO MAKES IT FRAGILE.

The thumb may appear to only have two knuckles, but it actually has a third, right above the wrist. This is called the first carpometacarpal joint. If that starts to hurt, or gets big enough to look like a bump or a mass, you may have carpometacarpal joint disorder (CMC), a common condition that is partly genetic and partly from repetitive use, according to Bergin. "You can get arthritis in the other joints, too, but this one is the most debilitating," she says. "First it becomes painful, and then you lose the ability to use it." Surgery can help with the pain, but it won't restore full mobility.

9. PAIN IN YOUR THUMB MAY REQUIRE LIFESTYLE CHANGES.

Bergin suggests small lifestyle changes so you don't need to grip anything too hard can make a huge difference, such as buying milk jugs with handles or using an electric toothbrush. "There are a lot of things we can do [to help] on a daily basis that shouldn't affect our quality of life," she suggests.

10. SWIPING RIGHT MIGHT BE DANGEROUS.

While we generally associate thumb arthritis with older people, Bergin says she now sees it in people in their forties and even thirties. Other studies have suggested that frequent phone use can be damaging. "There must be a genetic component to premature wearing of the thumb," she says. If it runs in your family, it's a good idea to be proactive and try to avoid repetitive gripping activities.

11. WHAT IT MEANS IF YOUR THUMB IS NUMB.

If instead of pain you're experiencing numbness of the thumb that extends to your index and middle fingers, you may be showing early symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Fortunately, this isn't an emergency. "The condition takes a long time to become a big problem" Bergin says. People can sometimes help the condition by wearing wrist braces and getting physical therapy. If you just can't take it, "you can get surgery at any point if you failed to improve with bracing," she says. The surgery can reduce mobility, but it should take away the numbness and pain.

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The Body
10 Things You Might Not Know About the Elbow
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The human body is an amazing thing. For each one of us, it's the most intimate object we know. And yet most of us don't know enough about it: its features, functions, quirks, and mysteries. Our series The Body explores human anatomy, part by part. Think of it as a mini digital encyclopedia with a dose of wow.

Unless you bang your funny bone or regularly play tennis, it's unlikely you spend a lot of time thinking about your elbow. But without this crucial joint, many daily activities would be impossible, explains Anand Murthi, attending orthopedic surgeon and chief of shoulder and elbow surgery at MedStar Union Memorial Hospital, in Baltimore, Maryland.

1. THE ELBOW IS MORE COMPLEX THAN IT MAY SEEM.

The elbow may seem small, but it requires three bones to make its simple hinging action possible. The humerus is a long bone that runs from the shoulder socket to the radius and ulna. (And yes, there's a school of thought that believes your "funny bone"—actually your ulnar nerve—is named as a play on the word humorous.) The radius is one of the two forearm bones, running down from the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. Lastly, the ulna stretches away from the pinkie side of the wrist. Thanks to those three bones, your arm can hinge—making it possible to do a bicep curl, lift a bag, or rotate your hand.

2. IT'S ALL HELD TOGETHER BY A KEY LIGAMENT, AS INJURED ATHLETES KNOW WELL …

The bones of the elbow are connected by numerous tendons and ligaments, including the ulnar collateral ligament, a fibrous tissue that connects the humerus to the forearm bones. This tendon is both important and vulnerable. When it ruptures or tears, you feel severe pain and can sometimes even see bruising on the inside of your arm. It's a surprisingly common sports injury, plaguing players of baseball, football, ice hockey, and golf. The other major ligament in the joint is called the radial collateral ligament. Located on the outside of the elbow, it prevents excessive extension of the elbow, and is less prone to injury.

3. … BUT THAT'S NOT THE ONLY VULNERABLE PART OF YOUR ELBOW.

At the lower end of the humerus are two rounded protrusions called epicondyles, which flare out from the bone. This is where muscles attach. The upper end of the ulna also has two protrusions, called the olecranon—which forms the pointy part of the elbow—and the caronoid process, a projection from the front of the ulna. Bone fractures, especially in children, often occur at these epicondyles, and are the most common short-term injuries of the elbow. Certain kinds of arthritis, especially in older patients with osteoarthritis, can also cause such severe degeneration here that an elbow replacement is necessary. (Since bones become more brittle as we age, it's wise to take steps to prevent falling or stumbling, as elbows are among the most likely casualties.)

4. TRAMPOLINES ARE COMMON ELBOW-BREAKERS.

Children love the thrill of a jump on the trampoline, but Barbara Bergin, an orthopedic surgeon in Austin, Texas, tells Mental Floss that she sees numerous fractures around the elbow in kids from doing just that. It's so common to break elbows and wrists this way, the American Board of Pediatrics warns against trampolines.

5. TWENTY-THREE MUSCLES GIVE YOUR ELBOW STABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY.

But the major muscles involved in bending your arm are the triceps—on the back of your arm—and biceps, on the front of your arm. Your many smaller flexor and extensor muscles allow you to move your wrists and fingers and rotate your forearm.

6. YOU DON'T HAVE TO PLAY TENNIS TO GET TENNIS ELBOW.

One of the most common conditions of the elbow is called "tennis elbow"—or lateral epicondylitis. Tennis players are prone to it, but it can be caused by any repetitive bending and flexing of the elbow, says Bergin. It's a painful degeneration of the tendons that attach to the bone on the outside of the elbow. It's so common, she says, "I probably see tennis elbow every day in my office." If the condition should strike you, Bergin says, "It's critical to stop doing whatever hurts. It will not get better if you continue to participate in whatever activity is causing pain." Full and total healing is required before you can return to the activities that gave you the condition in the first place.

7. IF IT GETS BAD ENOUGH, YOU MAY NEED "TOMMY JOHN" SURGERY.

When major league pitcher Tommy John injured his ulnar collateral ligament in 1974, his doctor opted to try a unique surgery to replace the deteriorated ligament with a tendon from somewhere else. Though the surgery can require a full year's recovery time—in Tommy John's case, it was nearly two and a half years and two surgeries—it's since become a time-tested method to repair this damaged ligament. Murthi tells Mental Floss, "New research on repairing the medial collateral ligament (versus reconstructing it) may lead to earlier recovery for Tommy John surgery. Also new treatments for articular cartilage damage, ligament reconstruction, and joint sparing techniques are evolving."

8. BUT IT'S HARD TO OPERATE ON YOUR ELBOW.

The elbow's close proximity to important blood vessels and nerves in your hand and arm make it a challenge to perform surgery on, Murthi says: "Careful, precise surgery is required to provide a good outcome. Often, rehabilitation with a skilled therapist is crucial to a good recovery." Currently, many operations are performed arthroscopically, so that surgeons can see all the various components as they make delicate maneuvers.

9. IF YOU HAVE TO GET AN AMPUTATION, HOPE FOR ONE BELOW THE ELBOW.

Should you have the misfortune of losing part of an arm, it's better to lose the parts below the elbow, Bergin says. This helps you maintain a range of motion and allows you to better manipulate a prosthesis. Fortunately, upper extremity amputations are rare and almost always result from accidents, as compared to lower arm amputations, which are often caused by some form of vascular disease.

10. EVEN JUST READING A BOOK CAN CAUSE AN ELBOW CONDITION.

While you may be tempted to read that latest hefty bestseller late into the night, if you're keeping your elbows bent in a sitting position for too long, you can get a case of ulnar neuritis, inflammation of the ulnar nerve—which can lead to numbness or weakness of the fingers and hand. Bergin warns, "It's much more common now than it used to be because we sit around for hours at a time on our phones." If you experience a "little tingly feeling in the pinky and fourth finger," she says, you've probably got a case. Her recommendation is to take as many breaks with your arms straight out as you can. Switch to a kindle or laptop that you can prop up to read at night. Be conscious of your ergonomics when you drive, type, and use your electronics.

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