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The Halloween Science FAQ

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What is dry ice and how does it make that awesome fog?

Dry ice is the colorless, odorless, solid form of carbon dioxide, first reported in 1834 by the French chemist Charles Thilorier, who opened a container of liquid carbon dioxide needed for an experiment and observed that most of the liquid CO2 quickly evaporated, leaving a solid form on the bottom of the canister.

The surface temperature of dry ice is −109.3 °F. As it warms up, it sublimes, or transitions from the solid to gas form with no intermediate liquid form (a process called sublimation). These two characteristics make it an excellent coolant and since 1925, when solid CO2 was trademarked and sold as "Dry ice" by the DryIce Corporation of America, it's been used to flash freeze and refrigerate food and biological samples, make ice cream, bait mosquito traps (they're attracted to CO2) and make fog for theater productions, Sunn O))) concerts and haunted houses.

That fog is made by quickly changing the CO2 into its gas form. In an ice chest, dry ice sublimes at an average rate of 5-10 pounds every 24 hours. But placing dry ice in hot water accelerates sublimation considerably and turns the solid CO2 into CO2 gas. The cold CO2 gas meets the surrounding air and drops its temperature enough for condensation to occur and tiny droplets of water to form in the air and, voila, you have fog. Because carbon dioxide is heavier than air, and cold air is denser than warm air, the fog stays low to the ground for that extra creepy effect.

Why do we get goosebumps?

Goose bumps, also called goose flesh or goose pimples and known to medical professionals as cutis anserina ("cutis," skin + "anser," goose = goose skin) involuntarily develop on our skin when we become cold or experience strong emotions in a reflex called horripilation or piloerection. Whether we're freezing or getting the bejesus scared out of us, our sympathetic nervous systems pick up on a fight-or-flight situation and release adrenaline, muscles at the base of our body hairs contract, pull the hair erect, and create a shallow depression on the skin surface that causes the surrounding area to protrude. A goose bump is born.

In mammals with plenty of body hair or fur (chimps, otters, mice, cats, etc.), horripilation serves two purposes. One, erect hairs trap air, create insulation and aid heat retention. Two, erect hairs make an animal appear larger and helps intimidate enemies. In humans, horripilation as a response to cold or fear provides no known benefit since we lost most of our body hair some time ago.

What's the best candy container for trick-or-treating?

hwcandy_03What sort of container will provide you with maximum space for your candy haul? A bucket? A bag? The ol' pillow case? The guys (Guys? Gals? Robots? Not a whole lot of info available on who runs it.) at My Science Project conducted an experiment to find out.

First, the researchers accounted for the wide variety of candies available to the average trick-or-treater. They divided candy into three categories: ""˜premium' (fun-sized candy bars), "˜meh' (chewy boxed candies like Milk Duds), and "˜bottom of the barrel' (hard candy, gumballs, Dum Dum pops)," mixed roughly equal amounts by weight of top, middle, and bottom tier candies, and threw them into the containers by the handful, in order to give the candy a natural spatial distribution.

Each container was filled to a capacity where it could be reasonably carried without spilling and then weighed on a hanging spring scale (adjusted to account for the weight of the container).

Their results"¦

A 10-quart bucket held a total of 9.5 lbs of candy, consisting of 375 pieces.
A standard white 5-gallon plastic bucket allowed for 20 lbs of candy in 675 pieces.
A double-bagged, regular brown paper grocery bag held 25 lbs of candy, consisting of 885 pieces. The researchers found that the bag's unreliable handles were problematic once the bag was full.
A standard size pillow case, allowing enough empty room at the top so that it may be grasped and picked up with two hands, held a whopping 47.75 lbs of candy in the form of 1690 pieces.

Next, they wanted to know if it would be possible to even collect that much candy in one night of trick-or-treating. How far would one need to walk and how many houses would they have to hit?

The researchers picked two different middle-class residential areas representative of suburban America at large to use in the experiment. Campbell, California, in Silicon Valley is an older area with dense housing, and St. Peters, Missouri, a suburb of St. Charles, is more rural and contains many newer developments. The researchers used data from to approximate the number of houses per square mile and constructed several different trick-or-treating scenarios, varying the values for the number of candies received at each house, and the percentage of houses distributing candy. In their worst case scenario, they figure a trick-or-treater would have a 50% success rate and receive an average of 2.5 pieces of candy per house, while a decent trick-or-treating run would see a 75% success rate and 3.5 pieces of candy per house.

They researchers then used Google maps to work out what sort of mileage a candy hunter would have to clock. Assuming the first scenario, a trick-or-treater would have to visit approximately 1352 houses and cover .42 square miles in Campbell, given the housing density, to fill their pillowcase. Under the more favorable conditions of the second scenario, it would take visits to 644 houses and .2 square miles to fill a pillowcase. Looking at the their map, the researchers estimated roughly 1 linear mile of street distance per every .036 square miles, meaning one would walk about 11 miles to fill their candy bag in the worst case scenario.

In the better scenario in St. Peters, the lower density of housing necessitates that someone cover .6 square miles to fill a pillowcase. That's more walking than in the worst case scenario in Campbell—and since the researchers' housing densities are based on statistical averages and don't account for undeveloped land, a trick-or-treater would likely need to cover a lot more ground. [Image courtesy of They've got some fabulous stuff on their site. Who among us hasn't wondered whether Viagra keeps flowers fresh?]


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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Sponsor Content: BarkBox
8 Common Dog Behaviors, Decoded
May 25, 2017
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Dogs are a lot more complicated than we give them credit for. As a result, sometimes things get lost in translation. We’ve yet to invent a dog-to-English translator, but there are certain behaviors you can learn to read in order to better understand what your dog is trying to tell you. The more tuned-in you are to your dog’s emotions, the better you’ll be able to respond—whether that means giving her some space or welcoming a wet, slobbery kiss. 

1. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with his legs and body relaxed and tail low. His ears are up, but not pointed forward. His mouth is slightly open, he’s panting lightly, and his tongue is loose. His eyes? Soft or maybe slightly squinty from getting his smile on.

What it means: “Hey there, friend!” Your pup is in a calm, relaxed state. He’s open to mingling, which means you can feel comfortable letting friends say hi.

2. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with her body leaning forward. Her ears are erect and angled forward—or have at least perked up if they’re floppy—and her mouth is closed. Her tail might be sticking out horizontally or sticking straight up and wagging slightly.

What it means: “Hark! Who goes there?!” Something caught your pup’s attention and now she’s on high alert, trying to discern whether or not the person, animal, or situation is a threat. She’ll likely stay on guard until she feels safe or becomes distracted.

3. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing, leaning slightly forward. His body and legs are tense, and his hackles—those hairs along his back and neck—are raised. His tail is stiff and twitching, not swooping playfully. His mouth is open, teeth are exposed, and he may be snarling, snapping, or barking excessively.

What it means: “Don’t mess with me!” This dog is asserting his social dominance and letting others know that he might attack if they don’t defer accordingly. A dog in this stance could be either offensively aggressive or defensively aggressive. If you encounter a dog in this state, play it safe and back away slowly without making eye contact.

4. What you’ll see: As another dog approaches, your dog lies down on his back with his tail tucked in between his legs. His paws are tucked in too, his ears are flat, and he isn’t making direct eye contact with the other dog standing over him.

What it means: “I come in peace!” Your pooch is displaying signs of submission to a more dominant dog, conveying total surrender to avoid physical confrontation. Other, less obvious, signs of submission include ears that are flattened back against the head, an avoidance of eye contact, a tongue flick, and bared teeth. Yup—a dog might bare his teeth while still being submissive, but they’ll likely be clenched together, the lips opened horizontally rather than curled up to show the front canines. A submissive dog will also slink backward or inward rather than forward, which would indicate more aggressive behavior.

5. What you’ll see: Your dog is crouching with her back hunched, tail tucked, and the corner of her mouth pulled back with lips slightly curled. Her shoulders, or hackles, are raised and her ears are flattened. She’s avoiding eye contact.

What it means: “I’m scared, but will fight you if I have to.” This dog’s fight or flight instincts have been activated. It’s best to keep your distance from a dog in this emotional state because she could attack if she feels cornered.

6. What you’ll see: You’re staring at your dog, holding eye contact. Your dog looks away from you, tentatively looks back, then looks away again. After some time, he licks his chops and yawns.

What it means: “I don’t know what’s going on and it’s weirding me out.” Your dog doesn’t know what to make of the situation, but rather than nipping or barking, he’ll stick to behaviors he knows are OK, like yawning, licking his chops, or shaking as if he’s wet. You’ll want to intervene by removing whatever it is causing him discomfort—such as an overly grabby child—and giving him some space to relax.

7. What you’ll see: Your dog has her front paws bent and lowered onto the ground with her rear in the air. Her body is relaxed, loose, and wiggly, and her tail is up and wagging from side to side. She might also let out a high-pitched or impatient bark.

What it means: “What’s the hold up? Let’s play!” This classic stance, known to dog trainers and behaviorists as “the play bow,” is a sign she’s ready to let the good times roll. Get ready for a round of fetch or tug of war, or for a good long outing at the dog park.

8. What you’ll see: You’ve just gotten home from work and your dog rushes over. He can’t stop wiggling his backside, and he may even lower himself into a giant stretch, like he’s doing yoga.

What it means: “OhmygoshImsohappytoseeyou I love you so much you’re my best friend foreverandeverandever!!!!” This one’s easy: Your pup is overjoyed his BFF is back. That big stretch is something dogs don’t pull out for just anyone; they save that for the people they truly love. Show him you feel the same way with a good belly rub and a handful of his favorite treats.

The best way to say “I love you” in dog? A monthly subscription to BarkBox. Your favorite pup will get a package filled with treats, toys, and other good stuff (and in return, you’ll probably get lots of sloppy kisses). Visit BarkBox to learn more.