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A Still Life In Her Own Style: Frances Hodgkins

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We're kicking off the new season of "Feel Art Again" with some talented female artists, since our archive is a little lacking on the female front. Today's artist is Frances Mary Hodgkins (1869-1947), "one of New Zealand's most loved and critically-acclaimed artists," who was requested by reader Alan R.

1. Although Frances Hodgkins first exhibited in 1890, when she was only 21, Hodgkins considered a trip to Morocco in the early 1900s as the true beginning of her painting career. During the trip, she travelled from Tangier to Tetuan, where few white women had been, with a native caravan.

2. With her painting "Fatima," Hodgkins was the first New Zealander to have a work "hung on the line" at the Royal Academy of Arts in England. She achieved another first when she was the first woman to be appointed to the staff of Paris' Académie Colarossi, where she held watercolor classes.

3. According to Hodgkins biographer Alexa Johnston, the artist was apparently a big fan of food: "She painted it and sent letters home to family about it." Some of her favorites were veal and ham pie, Turkish Delight, and cupcakes.

4.Geoffrey Gorer, a writer, first met Hodgkins at a party; she was wearing "an odd and large assortment of polychrome garments "“ an Italian striped scarf round her neck, a red blouse, and a blue patterned jersey, a green scarf, red shoes"¦" He explained that "she had made herself a decoration, almost a still life, in her own style." According to Gorer, Hodgkins also had a young spirit and ageless face, making it seem "impossible that she was almost as near to our grandparents as to our parents."

5. Fellow New Zealander painter Dorothy Kate Richmond was one of Hodgkins' closest friends; she accompanied Hodgkins on her travels through Europe. Richmond was described by Hodgkins as "the dearest woman with the most beautiful face and expression." Hodgkins considered herself "a lucky beggar to have her as a travelling companion." This strong praise has caused some sources to speculate the two artists were lovers, but there is no evidence that they were lesbians or anything more than just friends to each other.

6. Earlier this year, the Dunedin Heritage Festival presented "A Portrait of Frances Hodgkins," composed by a Dunedin composer and performed by the Southern Sinfonia. The event included a dramatic presentation of Hodgkins' life, based on her letters to her mother; arias and choruses from countries where she lived and worked; and a selection of her paintings. The three movements of the musical performance represent the watercolors, oils, and gouache she used in her artwork. Ryman Healthcare, which runs the Frances Hodgkins Retirement Village, sponsored the event.

Larger versions of "The Hilltop" (above left), her untitled textile design (no. VII) (above center), and "Market at Concarneau from a Window of the Hotel des Voyageurs" (above right) are available.

Fans should check out the collections of Hodgkins' work in the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa and the Tate, as well as the Auckland Art Gallery's presentation "Frances Hodgkins Leitmotif."

"Feel Art Again" appears three times a week. Looking for a particular artist? Visit our archive for a complete listing of all 250+ artists that have been featured. You can e-mail us at feelartagain@gmail.com with details of current exhibitions, for sources or further reading, or to suggest artists.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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technology
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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iStock
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Health
One Bite From This Tick Can Make You Allergic to Meat
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iStock

We like to believe that there’s no such thing as a bad organism, that every creature must have its place in the world. But ticks are really making that difficult. As if Lyme disease wasn't bad enough, scientists say some ticks carry a pathogen that causes a sudden and dangerous allergy to meat. Yes, meat.

The Lone Star tick (Amblyomma americanum) mostly looks like your average tick, with a tiny head and a big fat behind, except the adult female has a Texas-shaped spot on its back—thus the name.

Unlike other American ticks, the Lone Star feeds on humans at every stage of its life cycle. Even the larvae want our blood. You can’t get Lyme disease from the Lone Star tick, but you can get something even more mysterious: the inability to safely consume a bacon cheeseburger.

"The weird thing about [this reaction] is it can occur within three to 10 or 12 hours, so patients have no idea what prompted their allergic reactions," allergist Ronald Saff, of the Florida State University College of Medicine, told Business Insider.

What prompted them was STARI, or southern tick-associated rash illness. People with STARI may develop a circular rash like the one commonly seen in Lyme disease. They may feel achy, fatigued, and fevered. And their next meal could make them very, very sick.

Saff now sees at least one patient per week with STARI and a sensitivity to galactose-alpha-1, 3-galactose—more commonly known as alpha-gal—a sugar molecule found in mammal tissue like pork, beef, and lamb. Several hours after eating, patients’ immune systems overreact to alpha-gal, with symptoms ranging from an itchy rash to throat swelling.

Even worse, the more times a person is bitten, the more likely it becomes that they will develop this dangerous allergy.

The tick’s range currently covers the southern, eastern, and south-central U.S., but even that is changing. "We expect with warming temperatures, the tick is going to slowly make its way northward and westward and cause more problems than they're already causing," Saff said. We've already seen that occur with the deer ticks that cause Lyme disease, and 2017 is projected to be an especially bad year.

There’s so much we don’t understand about alpha-gal sensitivity. Scientists don’t know why it happens, how to treat it, or if it's permanent. All they can do is advise us to be vigilant and follow basic tick-avoidance practices.

[h/t Business Insider]

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