Strange Geographies: Ghost Towns of California

I live in Los Angeles. I moved here in 2002 from a smaller, saner part of the country to go to film school and work, a lifestyle which became so all-consuming that for my first two or three years here, this sprawled-out behemoth of a city was all I knew of California. When you spend all your time hemmed inside its concrete borders, it's easy to imagine LA's low-slung jungle extending forever in all directions -- but it doesn't. Drive two hours to the north or the east and you'll find yourself in some of the most desolate country you can imagine; deserts and dry lake beds and mountain ranges stretching into the unfathomable distance. Turn down a neglected state road and you might not see another vehicle for fifty miles.

But, as I discovered on a recent road trip into a few the blank spots on California's map, many of its wild places aren't untouched -- they're deserted. California is a land of booms and busts, of big dreams and big failures, and its deserts and open spaces are littered with the leavings of dried-up towns that didn't make it. I went looking for them, and this is what I found.

Of course, I couldn't visit every ghost town in California -- there are hundreds -- but the ones I found are a fairly representative sampling. Larger versions of these photos are here.

Death Valley Junction

It's twenty miles east of Death Valley, right on the Nevada border, and smack in the middle of nowhere. It used to be a railroad town: the Death Valley Railroad headquartered there and its trains carried borax (and borax miners) from 1914 to 1928, but by the 40s the railroad was defunct and the town in decline. From a population of about 100 at its peak, the city limits sign lists just four people living in Death Valley Junction.

Wild horses roam the area. As recently as 1980, the only way you could call Death Valley Junction was by dialing an operator and asking for "Death Valley Junction, Toll Station 1" (or 2). There's an old opera house that's still in relatively good shape in the center of "town," but I was drawn to this desolate wreck on the outskirts. Peeking inside, I found some intriguing graffiti:
Death valley junction 3

The opposite wall reads "Because I have an alarm clock that runs on happiness."


This is such a small, long-dead town that you'd be hard-pressed to find it on a map -- folks nearby would probably tell you you were in Hinkley, a somewhat larger town west of Barstow. (If you saw Erin Brockovich, you remember Hinkley: the little desert town with poison water.) Lockhart was a small agricultural community that grew mainly alfalfa, of which the long-abandoned "Lockhart Ranch" gas station and general store complex is just about the only thing left.
Lockhart 1
The place is huge, and totally open to the elements. A fading sign on an outside wall declares: "We Sell Everything!"

A view out the manager's window on the second floor:
Lockhart 2

Not far away is a little motel. The motel office had been torn down to its foundation, but some of the rooms remained.

In the back of an old hardware store.

Not far away is Harper Dry Lake, where Howard Hughes used to test planes. An F-22 crashed into the lakebed earlier this year, killing the pilot.


Of all the ghost towns I stumbled across on my travels, Saltdale was the loneliest. But even in its 1920s-era salt-mining heyday it was lonely: so isolated that rather than travel to the nearest hospital, local women often chose to give birth at home (and paid a high price for it), and its general stores were notoriously easy to rob, since there were no police in Saltdale. There were houses, mining operations, stores, and even a school. Little remains today, save some foundations, the telltale mounds of rusting garbage that every dead town seems to leave behind it, and a tiny stretch of "baby gauge" railroad track:

The hulking shell of an old fridge.

What's a floor without a ceiling?

You could be in the most remote place on Earth, and I'll bet you'd still find things people shot with guns.


Fifteen or twenty miles down the road is a cluster of buildings formerly known as Garlock, which used to boast a school, a church, and -- much to the benefit of "the morals of the men and women of Garlock" -- the Garlock Literary Society. One can only imagine the stimulating discussions they must've had. Water scarcity and other problems eventually doomed the town.

These days it's little more than a cluster of ruins plastered with unfriendly signs. Look, it's for rent!

What people?

Not far away (but totally inaccessible to my 2WD sedan) is the Burro Schmidt Tunnel, which an enterprising (some would say crazy) old man named "Burro" dug through a mountain -- miles and miles of tunnel -- by hand. They say that somewhere in his bizarre warren of tunnels is a "chandelier room," hung with all manner of elaborate lighting fixtures. Enter very much at your own risk.

Randsburg Mining District

This is a close-knit cluster of ghost and semi-ghost towns, all centered around what used to be some very productive mines in some very inhospitable country.

Atolia was a tungsten mining town that started production in 1905. It was named after two mining company officials, Atkins and DeGolia. Among other amenities, the town had very popular little bar called the Bucket of Blood Saloon.

Red Mountain was a gold mining town well known for its bars and brothels. It's semi-ghost these days, with around 100 people still living there. I read something online that said the old Appel's Market General Store was still open for business --
Red mtn

-- but I couldn't find anyone inside to jerk me a soda. In fact, the back part of the roof is being held up by a few strategically-placed planks and a mattress.
Red mtn 2

Johannesburg and Randsburg are ghosts of their former selves, but you can still get a slice of pizza and shop for antiques. They're named for a famous-100-years-ago mining district in South Africa. There is a school, and they have a playground. A very, very depressing playground.
joberg playground

What's behind the green door? I don't know -- it was locked.

The church in Randsburg -- another building being held up by strategically-placed boards.


Okay, Ridgecrest isn't a ghost town. But its outskirts are pretty lonely, and that's where I found the remains of a settlement that had been turned into what looks like a pretty wicked paintball range.
Ridgecrest paintball

Ridgecrest paintball2

Looks like they burned a few houses down in order to literally level the playing field.
Ridgecrest paintball3

Here's one they didn't burn down. But I don't think anyone's moving in anytime soon.
Ridgecrest house


No, Trona's not a ghost town. But for every house that's occupied, there's one that's abandoned -- and seems to have been viciously defaced and vandalized. Trona is a desperate little town one valley over from Death Valley -- a lifeless, dust-blown sulfate mining town, named for trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate, or trona, which is what they pull out of the ground around there. If you live in Trona and are reading this, sorry to dis your 'burg -- but it just might be the ugliest and most depressing stretch of road in California.

This is one of the strangest houses I have ever seen. Its yard is full of rusting major appliances.

Giving a new meaning to the term "open house."

I peeked inside, hoping the realtors had left behind some freshly-baked cookies or a fruit plate.

Nope. Just some old cartons of beer and a couch meth-heads had set on fire. I can't believe the house didn't burn, too -- though from the moldy state of things, most likely the fire department had put it out.

Between Here and There

There were lots of unincorporated towns and nameless hamlets -- this was one. I like to think of Trona's "open house" and this town's abandoned gas station as metaphors for America's housing bust.
Abandoned gas station for sale


Keeler died when Los Angeles stole its water. Once a lakeside town, it's now a mostly-abandoned dustbowl. Check out my post on Keeler.
Keeler trailers


Once an important railroad town, today Laws is a kind of living museum. Lovers of old trains and railroad history should make this a must-stop.
Laws train

I thought this sign was fun.
Laws whiskey sign

A broken baby piano inside an old miner's shack.
Laws broken piano keys


No tour of California ghost towns is complete without a trip to Bodie, a remote, mountainous mining settlement on the far side of Yosemite and not far from Mono Lake. Once a bustling town of 10,000 -- and in 1885, one of the largest towns in the state of California -- these days only 5% of the buildings remain. That's still a huge number -- hundreds -- and walking its streets, maintained in a state of arrested decay by the California Parks Service, you're overcome by a palpable sense of what used to be. Highly, highly recommended. I'll be doing a whole post just on Bodie in the near future.
Bodie vista

bodie car fix

See what else Ransom Riggs is up to here.

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Strange Geographies
Disney Has a Pair of Abandoned Properties
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You’ve probably heard about all of the new stuff coming to Disney Parks over the next couple of years—Toy Story Land, a Star Wars hotel, new rides, new attractions, and more. But what about all of the old stuff?

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Disney closed the gates on two of its smaller properties: Discovery Island, an island filled with interesting plants and animals, and River Country, a water park with a rustic “swimming hole” theme. More than 15 years later, both remain abandoned.


In the early 1960s, when Walt Disney was flying over the Orlando area to scout locations for his newest theme park, he noticed a little island that looked particularly secluded and peaceful. When he completed his Disney World land purchase, he made sure the island, then known as Riles Island, was included.

Disney originally planned to call the place “Blackbeard’s Island” and give it an elaborate pirate theme. Construction took about a decade longer than they intended, but in 1974, the island did open to the public under the name “Treasure Island.” It wasn’t as heavily-themed as Walt had wanted—in fact, the only pirate "relic" was a shipwreck replica. Other than the fake wreck, the main attractions were exotic birds, animal demonstrations, and various walkways, lookout points, beaches, and lagoons.

Disunplugged // The Walt Disney Company

Treasure Island was open for just two years before Disney decided to make it bigger. They brought in 50,000 cubic yards of soil to expand the island to 11 acres, added more than 250 plants and flowers, and introduced 140 new exotic birds and animals. It was eventually renamed “Discovery Island” and was re-branded with an ecological theme.

It was never one of Disney’s most popular attractions, so it was a no-brainer to close Discovery Island after the bigger-and-better zoological park, Animal Kingdom, opened in 1998. The island’s animals were relocated to the new facilities and others were placed in non-Disney zoos across the country.

Discovery Island is still there all these years later, though it’s been completely abandoned. An urban explorer found his way onto the island in 2009 (don’t try this at home, by the way) and snapped a few pictures of what it looks like these days. Though it appears pretty desolate now, there have been some thoughts about how to resurrect this valuable piece of real estate.

Soon after the island closed, Disney met with Robyn and Rand Miller, the creators of the hugely popular computer games Myst and Riven, hoping to recreate a real-life version of the adventure game. A certain number of guests would be admitted to the island each morning and would have a set number of hours to explore, unlocking secrets and finding hidden passages in the process. No two experiences would ever be the same. Storylines were plotted and plans were sketched, but the Myst island never fully materialized.

In 2009, one site suggested that Disney had extensive plans in place to transform the place into a Lost-themed island, but that turned out to be a hoax. Nevertheless, diehard fans immediately rallied to the cause, even starting an online petition that show producer Damon Lindelof signed. Unfortunately, we won’t be able to visit the Hatch or purchase DHARMA Initiative-branded fountain drinks anytime soon.


River Country, a quaint little water park featuring tire swings, a barrel bridge, and two water slides called “Whoop ‘N’ Holler Hollow,” first opened to the public in 1976. The first rider to christen the water slide was Susan Ford, the daughter of then-President Gerald Ford.

The Huckleberry Finn-esque swimming hole, located near the Fort Wilderness campground area, was a popular vacation destination for 25 years, and was even the focus of a Wonderful World of Disney episode called “The Mouseketeers at Disney World.” At the end of the 2001 season, however, River Country was shut down for good. The rumor has long been that the death of an 11-year-old boy contributed to the closure, but the tragedy—the result of a rare amoeba found in freshwater lakes—occurred in 1980, 21 years before the proverbial windows were shuttered.

What’s closer to the truth, according to Yesterland, is that River Country simply became too expensive to operate. Theme park attendance dropped after September 11, forcing Disney to make budget cuts. Because two newer, easier-to-access water parks had been opened in more recent years, closing River Country was likely an easy decision to make.

Though a spokesperson said that River Country could potentially reopen if there was “enough guest demand,” it never did. Disney drained and filled in the 333,000-gallon Upstream Plunge pool just last year. There are currently no plans to demolish what remains of River Country, but there’s been speculation that the area will eventually be converted into timeshare units for the Disney Vacation Club.

Photojournalist Seph Lawless documented the decaying park in 2016.

Abandoned Disney World

A post shared by Seph Lawless (@sephlawless) on

10 Legendary (and Probably Made-Up) Islands

Often, islands come to represent places of extremes: they serve as utopias, purgatories, or ultimate dream vacation destinations. When it comes to mythological islands, utopias are especially popular. The Greeks had their Fortunate Islands, or Islands of the Blessed, where the luckiest mortals whiled away their time drinking and sporting. The Irish had a similar concept with their Mag Mell, or Plain of Honey, described as an island paradise where deities frolicked and only the most daring mortals occasionally visited. 

But mythology isn't the only engine creating islands that don't actually exist—some of these legendary land masses popped up on maps after miscalculations by early explorers who interpreted icebergs, fog banks, and mirages as real islands. Some of these cartographic “mistakes” may have been intentional—certain islands depicted on medieval maps might have been invented so they could be named after the patrons who funded the explorations. Even explorer Robert E. Peary wasn't immune: Some say he invented "Crocker Land," a supposedly massive island in the Arctic, to secure funding from San Francisco financier George Crocker. Crocker Land didn’t exist, although that didn’t prevent major American organizations (including the American Museum of Natural History) from sponsoring a four-year expedition to find it.

Much like the fictional Crocker Island, here are 10 more imaginary isles, all of which have a place in world history, literature, or mythology—despite not having a place on the map.

1. Isle of Demons 


Supposedly located off the coast of Newfoundland, this landmass (sometimes depicted as two islands) appeared on 16th century and early 17th century maps, and was named for the mysterious cries and groans mariners reported hearing through the mist.

The island was given a somewhat more solid identity after 1542, when nobleman and adventurer Jean-François Roberval was instructed by the King of France to found settlements along the North Atlantic coast. He brought his niece, Marguerite de La Rocque de Roberval, along for the voyage, but she began a passionate affair with one of Roberval's officers. Annoyed, Roberval put his niece (and maybe the officer—accounts differ), as well as her nurse, ashore on an otherwise unspecified "Isle of Demons" in the St. Lawrence River. Marguerite gave birth on the island, but the child died, as did Marguerite’s lover and nurse. However, the plucky Marguerite survived alone for several years, using her firearms against the wild beasts. After being rescued by Basque fishermen and returning to France, she reported that she had been beset "by beasts or other shapes abominably and unutterably hideous, the brood of hell, howling in baffled fury."  

Marguerite’s story appears in several historical accounts, including versions by Franciscan friar André Thevet and the Queen of Navarre. Still, the location of the “Isle of Demons” on which she landed has never been found for certain. Maritime historian and veteran Atlantic sailor Donald Johnson thinks he has identified it as Fichot Island, close to the Strait of Belle Isle at the northern tip of Newfoundland. Johnson notes that Fichot Island lies on Roberval's course, and is home to a breeding colony of gannets—a type of seabird whose guttural cries, heard only while breeding, may have been taken for the sounds of demons.

2. Antillia 


Also known as the Isle of Seven Cities, Antillia was a 15th century cartographic phenomenon said to lie far west of Spain and Portugal. Stories about its existence are connected to an Iberian legend in which seven Visigothic bishops and their parishioners fled Muslim conquerors in the eighth century, sailing west and eventually discovering an island where they founded seven settlements.  The bishops burned their ships, so they could never return to their former homeland. 

According to some versions of the legend, many people have visited Antillia but no one has ever left; in other versions of the tale, sailors can see the island from a distance, but the land always vanishes once they approach. Spain and Portugal even once squabbled over the island, despite its non-existence, perhaps because its beaches were said to be strewn with precious metals. By the late 15th century, once the North Atlantic was better mapped, references to Antillia disappeared—although it did lend its name to the Spanish Antilles.

3. Atlantis 


First mentioned by Plato, Atlantis was supposedly a large island that lay "to the west of the Pillars of Hercules" in the Atlantic Ocean. It was said to be a peaceful but powerful kingdom lost beneath the waves after a violent earthquake was released by the gods as punishment for waging war against Athens. There have been many attempts at identifying the island, although it may have been entirely a creation of Plato’s imagination; some archeologists associate it with the Minoan island of Santorini, north of Crete, whose center collapsed after a volcanic eruption and earthquake around 1500 BC. 

4. Aeaea 

In Greek mythology, Aeaea is the floating home of Circe, the goddess of magic. Circe is said to have spent her time on the island, gifted to her by her father, the Sun, waiting for mortal sailors to land so she could seduce them. (Afterwards, the story goes, she would turn them into pigs.) Some classical scholars have identified Aeaea as the Cape Circeium peninsula on the western coast of Italy, which may have been an island in the days of Homer, or may have looked like one because of the marshes surrounding its base.  

5. Hy-Brasil 

Also known as Country o'Breasal, Brazil Rock, Hy na-Beatha (Isle of Life), Tir fo-Thuin (Land Under the Wave), and by many other names, Brasil (Gaelic for "Isle of the Blessed") is one of the many mythical islands of Irish folklore, but one that nevertheless made several appearances on real maps.   

Like the Mediterranean's Atlantis, Brasil was said to be a place of perfect contentment and immortality. It was also the domain of Breasal, the High King of the World, who held court there every seven years. Breasal had the ability to make the island rise or sink as he pleased, and normally only let the island be visible when his court was in full swing.  

According to legend, Brasil lay "where the sun touched the horizon, or immediately on its other side—usually close enough to see but too far to visit." It first appeared on a map made in 1325 by Genoese cartographer Daloroto, who depicted it as a large area to the southwest of Ireland. (Later maps placed it farther west.) Its shape was usually drawn as a near-perfect circle, bifurcated by a river. Numerous explorers searched for the island, and some, including Italian navigator John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), even claimed to have found it. 

Today, scholars think Brasil may have been a reference to Baffin Island, or to now-sunken lands visible only when sea levels were lower during the last Ice Age, or else an optical illusion produced by layers of hot and cold air refracting light rays.  

6. Baralku 

Among the indigenous Australians of the Yolngu culture, Baralku (or Bralgu) is the island of the dead. The island holds a central place in the Yolngu cosmology—it's where the creator-spirit Barnumbirr is said to live before rising into the sky as the planet Venus each morning. Baralku is also the spot where the three siblings who created the landscape of Australia, the Djanggawul, originated. The island supposedly lies to the east of Arnhem Land in Northern Australia, and the Yolngu believe their souls return there after death.

7. Saint Brendan's Isle  

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This piece of land was said to have been discovered by Irish abbot and traveler Saint Brendan and his followers in 512, and to be located in the North Atlantic, somewhere west of Northern Africa. Brendan became famous after the publication of the Latin Navigation of St Brendan, an 8th/9th century text that described his voyage in search of the wonderful "Land of Promise" in the Atlantic Ocean. The book was a medieval best-seller, and gave the saint his nickname, "Brendan the Navigator." The island was said to be thickly wooded, filled with rich fruit and flowers. Tales of St. Brendan's Isle inspired Christopher Columbus, among others, and had an important influence on medieval cartography. Sightings were reported as late as the 18th century.

8. Avalon 

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First mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s 12th century Historia regum Britanniae, Avalon is the place where the legendary King Arthur's sword is forged, and where he is sent to recover after being wounded in battle. The island was said to be the domain of Arthur's half-sister, sorceress Morgan le Fay, as well as her eight sisters. Starting in the 12th century, Avalon was identified with Glastonbury in Somerset, in connection with Celtic legends about a paradisiacal “island of glass.” Twelfth century monks at Glastonbury Abbey claimed to have discovered Arthur’s bones—although later historians believe their “discovery” was a publicity stunt to raise money for Abbey repairs. 

9. Island of Flame 

In ancient Egyptian mythology, the Island of Flame (also known as the Island of Peace) was the magical birthplace of the gods and part of the kingdom of Osiris. It was said to have emerged out of primeval waters and to lay far to the East, beyond the boundaries of the world of the living. Associated with the rising sun, it was a place of everlasting light.  

10. Thule

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For the Greeks and Romans, Thule existed at the northernmost limit of their known world. It first appears in a lost work by the Greek explorer Pytheas, who supposedly found it in the 4th century BC. Polybius says that "Pytheas ... has led many people into error by saying that he traversed the whole of Britain on foot … and telling us also about Thule, those regions in which there was no longer any proper land nor sea nor air, but a sort of mixture of all three of the consistency of a jelly-fish in which one can neither walk nor sail, holding everything together, so to speak." Later scholars have interpreted Thule as the Orkneys, Shetlands, Iceland, or possibly Norway, while the Nazis believed Thule was the ancient homeland of the Aryan race.  

Bonus: People Used to Think California was an Island  

Between the 16th and the 18th centuries, many Europeans believed that California was an island. Like other islands on this list, the place was reported as being a kind of paradise. In fact, the name "California" first appears in a romantic novel penned by Spanish author Garci Ordóñez de Montalvo, who described it as an island filled with gold and precious gems, populated by a race of Amazons who rode griffins.  


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