With college football season starting up, we thought it might be interesting to take a look back at a few colleges who have changed their nicknames or mascots. Here are a few squads that have changed mascots, either because of controversy or the emergence of a better alternative.
1. Dartmouth College
The Ivy League school abandoned its unofficial Indian mascot in the 1970s in favor of going by the longtime nickname "the Big Green." Students missed having a real mascot, though, so in 2003 members of the humor magazine Dartmouth Jack-o-Lantern created a new one: Keggy the Keg. As you might imagine, he's an anthropomorphic beer keg.
2. University of Evansville
Until the 1924-25 basketball season, the University of Evansville's teams went by the bland nickname "the Pioneers." During a game in which Evansville routed Louisville, though, the Cardinals' coach remarked to the Pioneers that "You didn't have four aces up your sleeve, you had five!" A sports editor at the Evansville Courier heard the story and thought it was so funny he started referring to the school's teams by their current nickname, the Purple Aces.
3. Carthage College
Like St. John's and UMass, the small Wisconsin liberal arts school used to be known as "the Redmen." But while St. John's became the Red Storm in 1994 and UMass has been the Minutemen since 1972, Carthage got creative to avoid offending Native Americans while still paying homage to the school's red jerseys. The teams went from being the Redmen to the Red Men while removing any Native American imagery from their logo, and the NCAA gave the revamped name the thumbs-up.
4. Miami University
Ben Roethlisberger's alma mater went by the nickname "the Redskins" until 1997, when the school switched to the RedHawks for obvious reasons.
5. University of Hawaii at Manoa Until 2000 all of Hawaii's teams were known as the Rainbow Warriors, but not all athletes loved being affiliated with the rainbow. Athletic Director Hugh Yoshida said, "It's part of the gay community, their flags and so forth. Some of the student athletes had some feelings in regard to that."
In response to these homophobic "feelings," the school revamped its logo into a rainbow-less block letter "H" and let each team select its own mascot. As a result, the football team is now just the "Warriors," while the basketball team is the "Rainbow Warriors" and the apparently progressive baseball team is simply the "Rainbows."
6. Eastern Washington University
In 1973 the student body decided that its mascot, the Savages, had to go. Since then the school's teams have been known as the Eagles.
7. St. Bonaventure University
Prior to 1979, St. Bonaventure's men's teams were known as the Brown Indians. Believe it or not, that wasn't even the most offensive name on campus; the women's squads went by "the Brown Squaws" until 1979. In 2001 one former female athlete at St. Bonaventure told Indian Country Today, "[A] Seneca chief and clan mothers came over from the reservation and asked us to stop using the name because it meant "˜vagina.' We almost died of embarrassment." Since then the teams have been known as the Bonnies.
8. Elon University
Until 1999 the North Carolina school's teams went by the less-than-intimidating moniker "the Fighting Christians." However, as the school started to transition to Division I competition it needed a new mascot, which ended up being the Phoenix.
9. Stanford University
The Pac-10 power's teams were known as the Indians until 1972, when the school dropped the nickname in favor of the Cardinals. The new nickname was supposed to refer to the school's red color rather than the bird, but the plural form threw people off. Thus, in 1981 the school changed its nickname again, this time to the singular Cardinal. Stanford's signature zany tree mascot burst onto the scene in the post-Indians period when the school didn't really have one. Members of the band took it upon themselves to come up with a new mascot, and tried out several unsuccessful ideas like the Steaming Manhole and the French Fry. When they trotted out the Tree, though, the student body quickly fell in love, and the new mascot tradition started.
10. Wright State University
Sometimes a school's nickname stays the same while the mascot changes. The Wright State Raiders rallied behind Rowdy Raider, a red-bearded Viking from 1986 to 1997, when the pillaging sailor found himself replaced by a wolf. The school's teams still call themselves the Raiders, though.
11. The College of William & Mary
William & Mary was another school that called its teams the Indians until the 1990s, when it changed to the Tribe. The nickname placated the NCAA, but the team's new logo, a "W" and an "M" adorned with two tribal feathers, seemed to still suggest a Native American element. NCAA regulation eventually forced the school to drop the feathers, but the Tribe nickname remains.
Now in its 47th season, Sesame Street is one of television's most iconic programs—and it's not just for kids. We're big fans of the Street, and to prove it, here are some of our favorite Sesame facts from previous stories and our Amazing Fact Generator.
1. Oscar the Grouch used to be orange. Jim Henson decided to make him green before season two.
2. How did Oscar explain the color change? He said he went on vacation to the very damp Swamp Mushy Muddy and turned green overnight.
3. During a 2004 episode, Cookie Monster said that before he started eating cookies, his name was Sid.
4. In 1980, C-3PO and R2-D2 visited Sesame Street. They played games, sang songs, and R2-D2 fell in love with a fire hydrant.
5. Mr. Snuffleupagus has a first name—Aloysius
6. Ralph Nader stopped by in 1988 and sang "a consumer advocate is a person in your neighborhood."
7. Caroll Spinney said he based Oscar's voice on a cab driver from the Bronx who brought him to the audition.
8. In 1970, Ernie reached #16 on the Billboard Hot 100 with the timeless hit "Rubber Duckie."
9. One of Count von Count's lady friends is Countess von Backwards, who's also obsessed with counting but likes to do it backwards.
10.Sesame Street made its Afghanistan debut in 2011 with Baghch-e-Simsim (Sesame Garden). Big Bird, Grover and Elmo are involved.
11. According to Muppet Wiki, Oscar the Grouch and Count von Count were minimized on Baghch-e-Simsim "due to cultural taboos against trash and vampirism."
12. Before Giancarlo Esposito was Breaking Bad's super intense Gus Fring, he played Big Bird's camp counselor Mickey in 1982.
14. How big is Big Bird? 8'2". (Pictured with First Lady Pat Nixon.)
15. In 2002, the South African version (Takalani Sesame) added an HIV-positive Muppet named Kami.
16. Six Republicans on the House Commerce Committee wrote a letter to PBS president Pat Mitchell warning that Kami was not appropriate for American children, and reminded Mitchell that their committee controlled PBS' funding.
17.Sesame Street's resident game show host Guy Smiley was using a pseudonym. His real name was Bernie Liederkrantz.
18. Bert and Ernie have been getting questioned about their sexuality for years. Ernie himself, as performed by Steve Whitmere, has weighed in: “All that stuff about me and Bert? It’s not true. We’re both very happy, but we’re not gay,”
19. A few years later, Bert (as performed by Eric Jacobson) answered the same question by saying, “No, no. In fact, sometimes we are not even friends; he can be a pain in the neck.”
20. In the first season, both Superman and Batman appeared in short cartoons produced by Filmation. In one clip, Batman told Bert and Ernie to stop arguing and take turns choosing what’s on TV.
21. In another segment, Superman battled a giant chimp.
22. Telly was originally "Television Monster," a TV-obsessed Muppet whose eyes whirled around as he watched.
23. According to Sesame Workshop, Elmo is the only non-human to testify before Congress.
24. He lobbied for more funding for music education, so that "when Elmo goes to school, there will be the instruments to play."
25. In the early 1990s, soon after Jim Henson’s passing, a rumor circulated that Ernie would be killed off in order to teach children about death, as they'd done with Mr. Hooper.
26. According to Snopes, the rumor may have spread thanks to New Hampshire college student, Michael Tabor, who convinced his graduating class to wear “Save Ernie” beanies and sign a petition to persuade Sesame Workshop to let Ernie live.
27. By the time Tabor was corrected, the newspapers had already picked up the story.
28.Sesame Street’s Executive Producer Carol-Lynn Parente joined Sesame Workshop as a production assistant and has worked her way to the top.
29. Originally, Count von Count was more sinister. He could hypnotize and stun people.
30. According to Sesame Workshop, all Sesame Street's main Muppets have four fingers except Cookie Monster, who has five.
31. The episode with Mr. Hooper's funeral aired on Thanksgiving Day in 1983. That date was chosen because families were more likely to be together at that time, in case kids had questions or needed emotional support.
32. Mr. Hooper’s first name was Harold.
33. Big Bird sang "Bein' Green" at Jim Henson's memorial service.
35. Oscar's Israeli counterpart is Moishe Oofnik, whose last name means “grouch” in Hebrew.
36. Nigeria's version of Cookie Monster eats yams. His catchphrase: "ME WANT YAM!"
37. Sesame's Roosevelt Franklin ran a school, where he spoke in scat and taught about Africa. Some parents hated him, so in 1975 he got the boot, only to inspire Gob Bluth’s racist puppet Franklin on Arrested Development 28 years later.
38. Our good friend and contributor Eddie Deezen was the voice of Donnie Dodo in the 1985 classic Follow That Bird.
39. Cookie Monster evolved from The Wheel-Stealer—a snack-pilfering puppet Jim Henson created to promote Wheels, Crowns and Flutes in the 1960s.
40. This puppet later was seen eating a computer in an IBM training film and on The Ed Sullivan Show.
Thanks to Stacy Conradt, Joe Hennes, Drew Toal, and Chris Higgins for their previous Sesame coverage!
An earlier version of this article appeared in 2012.
More than 30 years ago, Apple defined the Super Bowl commercial as a cultural phenomenon. Prior to Super Bowl XVIII, nobody watched the game "just for the commercials"—but one epic TV spot, directed by sci-fi legend Ridley Scott, changed all that. Read on for the inside story of the commercial that rocked the world of advertising, even though Apple's Board of Directors didn't want to run it at all.
If you haven't seen it, here's a fuzzy YouTube version:
"WHY 1984 WON'T BE LIKE 1984"
The tagline "Why 1984 Won't Be Like '1984'" references George Orwell's 1949 novel 1984, which envisioned a dystopian future, controlled by a televised "Big Brother." The tagline was written by Brent Thomas and Steve Hayden of the ad firm Chiat\Day in 1982, and the pair tried to sell it to various companies (including Apple, for the Apple II computer) but were turned down repeatedly. When Steve Jobs heard the pitch in 1983, he was sold—he saw the Macintosh as a "revolutionary" product, and wanted advertising to match. Jobs saw IBM as Big Brother, and wanted to position Apple as the world's last chance to escape IBM's domination of the personal computer industry. The Mac was scheduled to launch in late January of 1984, a week after the Super Bowl. IBM already held the nickname "Big Blue," so the parallels, at least to Jobs, were too delicious to miss.
Thomas and Hayden wrote up the story of the ad: we see a world of mind-controlled, shuffling men all in gray, staring at a video screen showing the face of Big Brother droning on about "information purification directives." A lone woman clad in vibrant red shorts and a white tank-top (bearing a Mac logo) runs from riot police, dashing up an aisle towards Big Brother. Just before being snatched by the police, she flings a sledgehammer at Big Brother's screen, smashing him just after he intones "We shall prevail!" Big Brother's destruction frees the minds of the throng, who quite literally see the light, flooding their faces now that the screen is gone. A mere eight seconds before the one-minute ad concludes, a narrator briefly mentions the word "Macintosh," in a restatement of that original tagline: "On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you'll see why 1984 won't be like '1984.'" An Apple logo is shown, and then we're out—back to the game.
"... It is now 1984. It appears IBM wants it all. Apple is perceived to be the only hope to offer IBM a run for its money. Dealers, initially welcoming IBM with open arms, now fear an IBM-dominated and -controlled future. They are increasingly turning back to Apple as the only force that can ensure their future freedom. IBM wants it all and is aiming its guns on its last obstacle to industry control: Apple. Will Big Blue dominate the entire computer industry? The entire information age? Was George Orwell right about 1984?"
After seeing the ad for the first time, the Apple audience totally freaked out (jump to about the 5-minute mark to witness the riotous cheering).
SKINHEADS, A DISCUS THROWER, AND A SCI-FI DIRECTOR
Chiat\Day hired Ridley Scott, whose 1982 sci-fi film Blade Runner had the dystopian tone they were looking for (and Alien wasn't so bad either). Scott filmed the ad in London, using actual skinheads playing the mute bald men—they were paid $125 a day to sit and stare at Big Brother; those who still had hair were paid to shave their heads for the shoot. Anya Major, a discus thrower and actress, was cast as the woman with the sledgehammer largely because she was actually capable of wielding the thing.
Mac programmer Andy Hertzfeld wrote an Apple II program "to flash impressive looking numbers and graphs on [Big Brother's] screen," but it's unclear whether his program was used for the final film. The ad cost a shocking $900,000 to film, plus Apple booked two premium slots during the Super Bowl to air it—carrying an airtime cost of more than $1 million.
WHAT EXECUTIVES AT APPLE THOUGHT
Although Jobs and his marketing team (plus the assembled throng at his 1983 internal presentation) loved the ad, Apple's Board of Directors hated it. After seeing the ad for the first time, board member Mike Markkula suggested that Chiat\Day be fired, and the remainder of the board were similarly unimpressed. Then-CEO John Sculley recalled the reaction after the ad was screened for the group: "The others just looked at each other, dazed expressions on their faces ... Most of them felt it was the worst commercial they had ever seen. Not a single outside board member liked it." Sculley instructed Chiat\Day to sell off the Super Bowl airtime they had purchased, but Chiat\Day principal Jay Chiat quietly resisted. Chiat had purchased two slots—a 60-second slot in the third quarter to show the full ad, plus a 30-second slot later on to repeat an edited-down version. Chiat sold only the 30-second slot and claimed it was too late to sell the longer one. By disobeying his client's instructions, Chiat cemented Apple's place in advertising history.
When Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak heard that the ad was in trouble, he offered to pony up half the airtime costs himself, saying, "I asked how much it was going to cost, and [Steve Jobs] told me $800,000. I said, 'Well, I'll pay half of it if you will.' I figured it was a problem with the company justifying the expenditure. I thought an ad that was so great a piece of science fiction should have its chance to be seen."
But Woz didn't have to shell out the money; the executive team finally decided to run a 100-day advertising extravaganza for the Mac's launch, starting with the Super Bowl ad—after all, they had already paid to shoot it and were stuck with the airtime.
WHAT EVERYBODY ELSE THOUGHT
When the ad aired, controversy erupted—viewers either loved or hated the ad, and it spurred a wave of media coverage that involved news shows replaying the ad as part of covering it, leading to estimates of an additional $5 million in "free" airtime for the ad. All three national networks, plus countless local markets, ran news stories about the ad. "1984" become a cultural event, and served as a blueprint for future Apple product launches. The marketing logic was brilliantly simple: create an ad campaign that sparked controversy (for example, by insinuating that IBM was like Big Brother), and the media will cover your launch for free, amplifying the message.
The full ad famously ran once during the Super Bowl XVIII (on January 22, 1984), but it also ran the month prior—on December 31, 1983, TV station operator Tom Frank ran the ad on KMVT at the last possible time slot before midnight, in order to qualify for 1983's advertising awards.* (Any awards the ad won would mean more media coverage.) Apple paid to screen the ad in movie theaters before movie trailers, further heightening anticipation for the Mac launch. In addition to all that, the 30-second version was aired across the country after its debut on the Super Bowl.
Chiat\Day adman Steve Hayden recalled: "We ran a 30- second version of '1984' in the top 10 U.S. markets, plus, in an admittedly childish move, in an 11th market—Boca Raton, Florida, headquarters for IBM's PC division." Mac team member Andy Hertzfeld ended his remembrance of the ad by saying:
"A week after the Macintosh launch, Apple held its January board meeting. The Macintosh executive staff was invited to attend, not knowing what to expect. When the Mac people entered the room, everyone on the board rose and gave them a standing ovation, acknowledging that they were wrong about the commercial and congratulating the team for pulling off a fantastic launch.
Chiat\Day wanted the commercial to qualify for upcoming advertising awards, so they ran it once at 1 AM at a small television station in Twin Falls, Idaho, KMVT, on December 15, 1983 [incorrect; see below for an update on this -ed]. And sure enough it won just about every possible award, including best commercial of the decade. Twenty years later it's considered one of the most memorable television commercials ever made."
THE AWFUL 1985 FOLLOW-UP
A year later, Apple again employed Chiat\Day to make a blockbuster ad for their Macintosh Office product line, which was basically a file server, networking gear, and a laser printer. Directed by Ridley Scott's brother Tony, the new ad was called "Lemmings," and featured blindfolded businesspeople whistling an out-of-tune version of Snow White's "Heigh-Ho" as they followed each other off a cliff (referencing the myth of lemming suicide).
Jobs and Sculley didn't like the ad, but Chiat\Day convinced them to run it, pointing out that the board hadn't liked the last ad either. But unlike the rousing, empowering message of the "1984" ad, "Lemmings" directly insulted business customers who had already bought IBM computers. It was also weirdly boring—when it was aired at the Super Bowl (with Jobs and Sculley in attendance), nobody really reacted. The ad was a flop, and Apple even proposed running a printed apology in TheWall Street Journal. Jay Chiat shot back, saying that if Apple apologized, Chiat would buy an ad on the next page, apologizing for the apology. It was a mess:
In 2004, the ad was updated for the launch of the iPod. The only change was that the woman with the hammer was now listening to an iPod, which remained clipped to her belt as she ran. You can watch that version too:
Check out Mac team member Andy Hertzfeld's excellent first-person account of the ad. A similar account (but with more from Jobs's point of view) can found in the Steve Jobs biography, and an even more in-depth account is in The Mac Bathroom Reader. The Mac Bathroom Reader is out of print; you can read an excerpt online, including QuickTime movies of the two versions of the ad, plus a behind-the-scenes video. Finally, you might enjoy this 2004 USA Today article about the ad, pointing out that ads for other computers (including Atari, Radio Shack, and IBM's new PCjr) also ran during that Super Bowl.
* = A Note on the Airing in 1983
Update: Thanks to Tom Frank for writing in to correct my earlier mis-statement about the first air date of this commercial. As you can see in his comment below, Hertzfeld's comments above (and the dates cited in other accounts I've seen) are incorrect. Stay tuned for an upcoming interview with Frank, in which we discuss what it was like running both "1984" and "Lemmings" before they were on the Super Bowl!