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7 Space Missions to Remember

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This is the International Year of Astronomy. The U.N. and International Astronomical Union have declared it so, but with a slogan like "The Universe -- yours to discover," it could be sponsored by the auto club.

Still, if you've lost track of those wonderful spacecrafts NASA has been launching for a half-century, here is an opportunity to catch up with a few of them.

1. Pioneer 3 & 4 (1958, 1959)

The space race was running its first lap when NASA aimed for the moon and launched Pioneer 3 in late 1958 and Pioneer 4 in early 1959. Pioneer 4 successfully passed within 30,000 miles of the moon, and traveled 407,000 miles from Earth before the ground station could no longer track it. Pioneer 4 became the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit the sun, which it is still doing. Pioneer 3, however, wasn't as successful: a glitch sent it 63,000 miles into space, after which gravity brought it back to Earth. In the meantime, Pioneer 3's Geiger counter discovered a second radiation belt around Earth.

2. Viking 1 & 2 (1975)

viking

Launched within weeks of each other in the summer of 1975, the Vikings were the first spacecrafts to reach the surface of another planet safely. Then, as now, the big curiosity was about life on Mars, and the Vikings were sent to search for microorganisms in the Martian soil. The Viking ships were composed of two parts: orbiters, which circled the planet, and landers, which were directed to land on the surface of the planet itself. Viking Lander 1 shot photographs that revealed the Martian sky is pink; Viking Lander 2 recorded a "Marsquake." They continued to send data to Earth until the early 1980s.

3. Voyager 1 & 2 (1977)

voyager

The Voyagers, which made a tour of the outer solar system before heading toward interstellar space, are the oldest functioning spacecrafts. There were launched in 1977, because that year the planets literally aligned: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were all collinear at that time. The crafts were able to use the gravity of each planet to slingshot them into the orbit of the next. The Voyagers passed by Jupiter in 1979 and viewed for the first time Jupiter's rings and volcanic activity on its moon Io, and Saturn in 1981. Voyager 1 then turned and headed away from the ecliptic, the plane in which the planets orbit.

Voyager 2 reached Uranus in 1986 and Neptune in 1989. Last year, it reached the transition zone between the solar system and interstellar space. From information radioed to Earth, scientists determined "the bubble of solar wind surrounding the solar system is not round, but has a squashed shape," according to Science Daily. NASA believes the two ships will continue functioning until at least 2020.

4. Galileo (1989)

Galileo-89As Voyager 2 reached Neptune, the spacecraft Galileo headed for Jupiter by a circuitous route that took it past Venus and twice past Earth. In 1995, it became the first spacecraft to orbit the largest planet. Galileo also dropped a probe into Jupiter's atmosphere and witnessed the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. It also discovered a magnetic field generated by Jupiter's moon Ganymede, and found that another moon, Europa, has a saltwater ocean under a layer of ice. Scientists deliberately crashed Galileo into Jupiter in 2003. They were afraid the spacecraft might otherwise hit one of the planet's moons, where life is theoretically possible, and contaminate it with Earth-bred microorganisms.

5. Cassini-Huygens (1997)

saturnLaunched in 1997, Cassini entered Saturn's orbit in 2004, and sent the Huygens probe parachuting through the atmosphere to the surface of the planet's largest moon, Titan. Together, Cassini and Huygens discovered vast methane lakes on Titan. Cassini revealed the complexity of Saturn's ring system, and found a moon, Daphnis, embedded in the rings. The spacecraft also found rings around Saturn's second-largest moon, Rhea, and a plume of microscopic ice particles ejected from the south pole of the small, inner moon Enceladus. Cassini's mission has been extended to study the effects of the equinox on Saturn, which will occur in August. The sun will shine directly on the equator and begin to illuminate the planet's northern hemisphere and the rings' northern face.

6. Mars Spirit & Opportunity (2003)

Spirit and Opportunity are two rovers that have been poking around opposite sides of Mars since 2004, searching for the arid planet's watery past. According to NASA, "each has found evidence of long-ago Martian environments where water was active and conditions may have been suitable for life." Both descended using a parachute, then a thruster shot, with airbags cushioning the landing. Although they were designed to operate for only three months, the two are still rolling over the Martian surface today. Opportunity has driven more than seven miles; Spirit more than four. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in 2006, and now drives backward. Some months ago it failed to activate when the morning light hit its solar panels, although it later responded to commands from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA has since referred to these hiccups as "amnesia."

7. Messenger (2004)

messengerNobody's been to Mercury for 30 years, even though it's just two planets away from us. To rectify this, Messenger was launched in 2004 with the express purpose of observing Mercury. Messenger has already made two flybys of the small planet closest to the sun, and is scheduled to make a third in September, before settling into orbit in 2011. Messenger's assignment is six fold: it will examine Mercury's extreme density, its geologic history, its magnetic field (an unusual feature it shares with Earth, but not Venus or Mars), the size of its core, the unusual reflective materials at its poles, and the composition of its thin atmosphere.

David Holzel would like to tour the solar system. Until then, he blogs at David Wrote This.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Nick Briggs/Comic Relief
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What Happened to Jamie and Aurelia From Love Actually?
May 26, 2017
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Nick Briggs/Comic Relief

Fans of the romantic-comedy Love Actually recently got a bonus reunion in the form of Red Nose Day Actually, a short charity special that gave audiences a peek at where their favorite characters ended up almost 15 years later.

One of the most improbable pairings from the original film was between Jamie (Colin Firth) and Aurelia (Lúcia Moniz), who fell in love despite almost no shared vocabulary. Jamie is English, and Aurelia is Portuguese, and they know just enough of each other’s native tongues for Jamie to propose and Aurelia to accept.

A decade and a half on, they have both improved their knowledge of each other’s languages—if not perfectly, in Jamie’s case. But apparently, their love is much stronger than his grasp on Portuguese grammar, because they’ve got three bilingual kids and another on the way. (And still enjoy having important romantic moments in the car.)

In 2015, Love Actually script editor Emma Freud revealed via Twitter what happened between Karen and Harry (Emma Thompson and Alan Rickman, who passed away last year). Most of the other couples get happy endings in the short—even if Hugh Grant's character hasn't gotten any better at dancing.

[h/t TV Guide]

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