5 Things You Can Use if You Run Out of Cash

Civilizations have been creating currencies since the dawn of history. A pure barter system always has deficiencies, not least of which is transporting goods over mountains, through valleys, and across oceans. Think of the human effort involved in a simple transaction—not to mention the manure abatement fees—on ox-drawn wagons. So, to make transactions a bit simpler, almost all civilizations have come up with currencies.

1. Shells

From China to Africa to the Americas, shells were used as a medium of exchange. Whether small cowry shells or larger conchs, gathered in bags or tied together to form belts, shells held value in ancient cultures. Most shells used for currency throughout the world were not large decorative items, but small, transportable, and rather unremarkable specimens. In some cultures, the time and effort spent on tying the shells together to form belts, necklaces, and tapestries contributed to their value. Shells were so predominant as a currency that some of the first real coins minted in China were bronze pieces cast in the shape of small shells.

2. Feathers

Let's face it, it's tough out there being a chief, especially on a small Pacific island where the resources are scarce and the people are hungry. The only way to project power is by wearing a pimp-tastic feather cape that conveys authority. Feathers, then, became a prized commodity in many island societies of yore. Eventually, however, feathers themselves were being used very little in the decorative arts and instead became a mode of exchange. As recently as the 1970s, some small island communities were still using feathers bound together in plates in intra-island trading.

3. Chocolate

chocolate-drizzleIn Mesoamerican cultures the cacao bean, from which we get chocolate, was the primary form of currency in the pre-Columbian era. The small, rather plain looking little pods had a pretty regular exchange rate throughout Mayan civilization in which you could buy a tamale for a few beans or the pleasure of a lady's company for 10. The beans were so valuable that the unscrupulous went through the effort of making counterfeits by shaving down avocado pits. When the Spanish invaded, it took decades before they appreciated the delights of chocolate. They preferred the silver and gold of Central and South America for their currency.

4. Wampum

OK, to be fair, wampum could be lumped into the "shells" category, but it wouldn't have told the whole story. Wampum is a general name for a variety of shell beads that were produced by Native Americans from the 16th to the 18th centuries. Between various tribes and groups, wampum was exchanged to commemorate treaties, marriages, and grand occasions. The beads were often tied together in intricate belts that created pictures, told stories, and basically acted as a memory aid in the oral tradition. It was not until contact with the Europeans that the beads actually became currency unto themselves. Some of the colonies strictly monetized the beads and created a specific exchange rate between wampum and Dutch stuivers, or Spanish reales. Eventually, Dutch colonists started more industrial manufacture of the beads and wound up demolishing the market with overproduction.

5. Abalone

currencySometimes you don't have to look back in history to find examples of interesting currencies. The abalone, a rather rare mollusk, has been poached almost to extinction. Like many endangered creatures, its value as a food source greatly outweighs its actual tastiness. Its shell is valued for its iridescent shimmer that is a primary source of mother of pearl. The gastropods are so valued in Asia, however, that Chinese gangs are reported to be using the chewy creatures as trade for shipments of drugs, guns, and other contraband material.


The Top 10 Pizza Chains in America

Pizza is a $45.1 billion industry in the United States. Here are the top pizza chains across this great nation, based on gross sales in 2016.


Pizza Hut is truly enormous. Raking in more than $5.75 billion in 2016, the chain is best known for its red roof architecture. The style is so distinctive that the blog Used to Be a Pizza Hut collects photos of former Pizza Hut restaurants now turned into other businesses.


With more than $5.47 billion in revenue, Domino's is nipping at Pizza Hut's heels. For decades, Domino's offered a guarantee that your pizza would arrive in 30 minutes or less, or it would be free. The policy was terminated in 1993 in the U.S., and Domino's has since focused on expanding its menu with pasta, sandwiches, and other goodies.


Photo of the exterior of a Little Caesars restaurant

Founded in 1959 by Mike and Marian Ilitch, Little Caesars focuses on carry-out pizza at ultra-competitive prices. Using slogans like "Pizza! Pizza!," "Pan! Pan!," and "Deep Deep Dish," the chain offers hot cheese pizzas for just $5.


Headquartered in Jeffersontown, Kentucky, Papa John's was the first national pizza chain to offer online ordering in the U.S., way back in 2002.


Papa Murphy's offers exclusively "take and bake" pizza, where the ingredients are put together in front of you, then you bake the pizza at home. It's the only large chain to offer this kind of pizza, and it's a smart business model—stores don't need pizza ovens!


California Pizza Kitchen

The first California Pizza Kitchen launched in 1985 in Beverly Hills, California. The focus is on gourmet pizza, including a line of relatively fancy frozen pizzas. In many locations, CPK also offers gluten-free crust as an option, making it a favorite for gluten-intolerant pizza lovers.


Pasquale “Pat” Giammarco founded Marco's Pizza in 1978. The Toledo, Ohio-based chain is now the country's fastest-growing pizza chain, with more than 800 franchised locations across the U.S. as well as in Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, and India. They specialize in what they've dubbed "Ah!thentic Italian."


In 1958, Bill Larson concluded four years of US Navy service and got a job at a pizza parlor in San Mateo, California. A year later, he founded his own: Round Table Pizza. Using a King Arthur theme, Round Table has often featured knights and shields in its logo. The knight theme originated when Larson saw drawings of King Arthur's court eating pizza.


The brainchild of two Georgia Tech students, Mellow Mushroom opened in Atlanta, Georgia as a one-off pizzeria. Today, it boasts more than 150 locations, and is regularly inching further westward.


Macaroni and cheese pizza from Cicis

Cicis is the world's largest pizza buffet chain. It features all sorts of wild stuff including a macaroni-and-cheese pizza.

Source: PMQ Pizza Magazine

Pop Culture
North Pole Blockbuster Video, One of Chain’s Few Remaining Stores, Is Closing

With streaming quickly becoming the new standard in movie-watching, the majority of today’s youngsters will never know the joy that came with a Friday night visit to the local Blockbuster Video store. Nor will they understand the inherent drama such an outing could bring: “Ooh, look Hocus Pocus is on VHS! Oh no, that kid got the last copy!” That already-tiny number is about to shrink even further with the announcement that Alaska’s North Pole Blockbuster, one of only an estimated eight stores left in the U.S., is closing its doors.

The announcement was made on Monday afternoon via the store’s Facebook page, which thanked its employees for their service:

The Fairbanks Daily News-Miner spoke with Kevin Daymude, the store’s general manager, who pointed to declining sales as the reason for the shuttering. “Do we have a great clientele? Yes, without a doubt,” Daymude said. “It just declined.”

While Blockbuster Video filed for bankruptcy in 2010, the brand continued to license its iconic blue-and-yellow ticket stub logo to franchisees, the bulk of which are located in Alaska. Why Alaska? Lack of broadband and high Internet price tags in the state mean that streaming content isn’t as simple as just pointing and clicking.

“A lot of [the stores] are still quite busy,” Alan Payne, a Blockbuster licensee-owner who owns a handful of the few remaining stores in the U.S., told The Washington Post in 2017. “If you went in there on a Friday night you’d be shocked at the number of people.”

Earlier this year Payne was forced to close his Edinburg, Texas store, the last Blockbuster in Texas, which had been operating since the 1990s. But Alaska won’t be Blockbuster-free anytime soon. Even with the North Pole store’s closing, there are still four remaining locations in Alaska.

While the North Pole store ceased its rental operations on Sunday, it will remain open through April while it sells off its inventory of movies and fixtures. The only question is whether there’s a VHS copy of Jerry Maguire somewhere in there.


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