The Quick 10: The 10 Most Expensive Photographs Ever

You know the photo of Einstein with his tongue sticking out - we use it all of the time here at the _floss. One of the originals was sold at auction last month for a shocking sum of money, which made me wonder... what are some other insanely expensive photos that have sold at auction? And in the interest of full disclosure, Einstein's doesn't even rank in the top ten. But since he's our mascot, I thought it was appropriate to throw him in the mix.

tongue

1. Arthur Sasse, Albert Einstein's tongue photo, $74,324. In 1951, Einstein was celebrating his 72nd birthday at Princeton University. It's a lighthearted gesture, but Einstein, of course, had a deeper meaning behind it. This particular photo is signed by the genius, and he even explains the meaning behind the gesture. In German, he wrote, "This gesture you will like, because it is aimed at all of humanity. A civilian can afford to do what no diplomat would dare. Your loyal and grateful listener, A. Einstein." It was for news anchor Howard K. Smith.

99cent

2. Andreas Gursky, 99 Cent II Diptychon, $3,346,456. Yep - this two-part photo of shelves at a grocery store is the most expensive photo sold to date. Kind of inspires you to head out to your own neighborhood market and start clicking away, doesn't it?

3. Edward Steichen, The Pond-Moonlight, $2.9 million.
In sharp contrast to Gursky's modern-day depiction, Steichen's 1904 snap shows a forest and a pond in Mamaroneck, New York. There are only three known copies of the early color photograph known to exist.

4. Edward Weston, Nude, $1,609,000.

This 1925 nude - which looks almost like a stark landscape - was the subject of a heated bidding war at Sotheby's last April. When the dust finally settled, the winner was Peter MacGill of the Pace-MacGill Gallery. It is the most a piece by Weston has ever sold for.

hands

5. Alfred Stieglitz, Georgia O'Keeffe (Hands), $1,472,000 and Georgia O'Keeffe Nude, $1,360,000.
Stieglitz holds two of the top ten spots, but since I cheated you out of one by sticking Einstein in there, we'll just count this as one spot. Stieglitz, as some of you probably know, was married to O'Keeffe. But when he took the 1919 nude photo, he was married. In fact, his wife walked in on one of their nude photo sessions (which took place in their apartment), and her suspicions of his affair were confirmed by Stieglitz - some historians believe he purposely arranged for her to walk in on the nude sessions so he had an easy way our of their marriage.

6. Richard Prince, Untitled (Cowboy), $1,248,000.
This was quite controversial, because the photograph actually violated copyright laws. A chunk of Prince's portfolio comes from "rephotographing" existing works. He first started doing it in 1977, when he rephotographed four pictures from the New York Times, and continued doing it through the '80s. Untitled (Cowboy) is one of those pieces; it was taken from an ad for Marlboro cigarettes.

athens

7. Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey, 113. Athènes. 1842. T.[emple] de J.[upiter] Olympien. Pris de l'Est., $922,488.
This dagguerotype is the earliest image of the Athenian Temple of Zeus. At the time of its 2003 sale, it was the most expensive photograph ever sold.

8. Gustave Le Gray, The Great Wave, Sete, $838,000.
Le Gray found it difficult to get the exposure just right for photographs that had both sea and sky in one frame - if the sky was just right, the water was wrong, and if the water looked good, the sky was off. He solved the problem by printing two negatives on one sheet, then exposing one for the sea and one for the sky.

9. Robert Mapplethorpe, Andy Warhol, $643,200.
You might know this one, even if you're not a huge art lover. The series features Warhol wearing a black turtleneck on a black background, making his platinum hair stand out starkly by comparison.

MOORISE

10. Ansel Adams, Moonrise, Hernandez,, $609,600.
You knew Ansel Adams had to be on the list somewhere, right? The story goes that Adams had a particularly difficult day shooting where none of his images seemed to be turning out the way he wanted. He was headed back to Santa Fe when he happened upon this shot in his car; he immediately pulled over to the side of the road and pulled out equipment in a hurry because the light was fading fast. He had just barely gotten the picture when the light that illuminated the crosses moved on. His efforts obviously paid off to the tune of more than half a million dollars.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
iStock
arrow
Afternoon Map
From Snoopy to Shark Bait: The Top Slang Word in Each State
iStock
iStock

There’s a minute, and then there’s a hot minute. Defined as “a longish amount of time,” this unit of time is familiar to Alabamians but may stir up confusion beyond the state’s borders.

It’s Louisianans, though, who feel the “most misunderstood,” according to the results of a survey regarding regional slang by PlayNJ. Of the Louisiana residents surveyed, 72 percent said their fellow Americans from other states—even neighboring ones—have a hard time grasping their lingo. Some learned the hard way that ordering a burger “dressed” (with lettuce, tomato, pickles, and mayo) isn’t universally understood, nor is the phrase “to pass a good time” (instead of “to have” a good time).

After surveying 2000 people (with proportional numbers from each state), PlayNJ created a map showing the top slang word in each state. Many are words that are unlikely to be understood beyond state lines, but others—like California’s bomb (something you really like) and New York’s deadass (to be completely serious)—have spread well beyond their respective borders thanks to memes and internet culture.

Hawaiians are also known for their distinctive slang words, with 71 percent reporting that words like shaka (hello) and poho (waste of time) are frequently misunderstood. Shark bait, one of the state’s more colorful terms, refers to tourists who are so pale that they attract sharks.

Check out the full list below and test your knowledge of regional slang words with PlayNJ’s online quiz.

A chart showing the top slang words in each state
PlayNJ
nextArticle.image_alt|e
Illustration by Mental Floss / Images: iStock
arrow
The Body
10 Facts About the Appendix
Illustration by Mental Floss / Images: iStock
Illustration by Mental Floss / Images: iStock

Despite some 500 years of study, the appendix might be one of the least understood structures in the human body. Here's what we know about this mysterious organ.

1. THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS CALLED IT THE "WORM" OF THE BOWEL.

The human appendix is small, tube-shaped, and squishy, giving ancient Egyptians, who encountered it when preparing bodies for funerary rites, the impression of a worm. Even today, some medical texts refer to the organ as vermiform—Latin for "worm-like."

2. THE APPENDIX SHOWS UP IN LEONARDO DA VINCI’S DRAWINGS.

The earliest description of a human appendix was written by the Renaissance physician-anatomist Jacopo Berengario da Carpi in 1521. But before that, Leonardo da Vinci is believed to drawn the first depiction of the organ in his anatomical drawings in 1492. Leonardo claimed to have dissected 30 human corpses in his effort to understand the way the body worked from mechanical and physiological perspectives.

3. IT'S ABOUT THE SIZE OF A PINKY FINGER.

The appendix is a small pouch connected to the cecum—the beginning of the large intestine in the lower right-hand corner of your abdomen. The cecum’s job is to receive undigested food from the small intestine, absorb fluids and salts that remain after food is digested, and mix them with mucus for easier elimination; according to Mohamad Abouzeid, M.D., assistant professor and attending surgeon at NYU Langone Medical Center, the cecum and appendix have similar tissue structures.

4. CHARLES DARWIN THOUGHT IT WAS A VESTIGIAL ORGAN …

The appendix has an ill-deserved reputation as a vestigial organ—meaning that it allegedly evolved without a detectable function—and we can blame Charles Darwin for that. In the mid-19th century, the appendix had been identified only in humans and great apes. Darwin thought that our earlier ancestors ate mostly plants, and thus needed a large cecum in which to break down the tough fibers. He hypothesized that over time, apes and humans evolved to eat a more varied and easier-to-digest diet, and the cecum shrank accordingly. The appendix itself, Darwin believed, emerged from the folds of the wizened cecum without its own special purpose.

5. … BUT THE APPENDIX PROBABLY EVOLVED TO HELP IMMUNE FUNCTION.

The proximity and tissue similarities between the cecum and appendix suggest that the latter plays a part in the digestive process. But there’s one noticeable difference in the appendix that you can see only under a microscope. “[The appendix] has a high concentration of the immune cells within its walls,” Abouzeid tells Mental Floss.

Recent research into the appendix's connection to the immune system has suggested a few theories. In a 2015 study in Nature Immunology, Australian researchers discovered that a type of immune cells called innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) proliferate in the appendix and seem to encourage the repopulation of symbiotic bacteria in the gut. This action may help the gut recover from infections, which tend to wipe out fluids, nutrients, and good bacteria.

For a 2013 study examining the evolutionary rationale for the appendix in mammal species, researchers at Midwestern University and Duke University Medical Center concluded that the organ evolved at least 32 times among different lineages, but not in response to dietary or environmental factors.

The same researchers analyzed 533 mammal species for a 2017 study and found that those with appendices had more lymphatic (immune) tissue in the cecum. That suggests that the nearby appendix could serve as "a secondary immune organ," the researchers said in a statement. "Lymphatic tissue can also stimulate growth of some types of beneficial gut bacteria, providing further evidence that the appendix may serve as a 'safe house' for helpful gut bacteria." This good bacteria may help to replenish healthy flora in the gut after infection or illness.

6. ABOUT 7 PERCENT OF AMERICANS WILL GET APPENDICITIS DURING THEIR LIFETIMES.

For such a tiny organ, the appendix gets infected easily. According to Abouzeid, appendicitis occurs when the appendix gets plugged by hardened feces (called a fecalith or appendicolith), too much mucus, or the buildup of immune cells after a viral or bacterial infection. In the United States, the lifetime risk of getting appendicitis is one in 15, and incidence in newly developed countries is rising. It's most common in young adults, and most dangerous in the elderly.

When infected, the appendix swells up as pus fills its interior cavity. It can grow several times larger than its average 3-inch size: One inflamed appendix removed from a British man in 2004 measured just over 8 inches, while another specimen, reported in 2007 in the Journal of Clinical Pathology, measured 8.6 inches. People with appendicitis might feel generalized pain around the bellybutton that localizes on the right side of the abdomen, and experience nausea or vomiting, fever, or body aches. Some people also get diarrhea.

7. APPENDECTOMIES ARE ALMOST 100 PERCENT EFFECTIVE FOR TREATING APPENDICITIS.

Treatment for appendicitis can go two ways: appendectomy, a.k.a. surgical removal of the appendix, or a first line of antibiotics to treat the underlying infection. Appendectomies are more than 99 percent effective against recurring infection, since the organ itself is removed. (There have been cases of "stump appendicitis," where an incompletely removed appendix becomes infected, which often require further surgery.)

Studies show that antibiotics produce about a 72 percent initial success rate. “However, if you follow these patients out for about a year, they often get recurrent appendicitis,” Abouzeid says. One 2017 study in the World Journal of Surgery followed 710 appendicitis patients for a year after antibiotic treatment and found a 26.5 percent recurrence rate for subsequent infections.

8. AN INFECTED APPENDIX DOESN’T ACTUALLY BURST.

You might imagine a ruptured appendix, known formally as a perforation, being akin to the "chestbuster" scene in Alien. Abouzeid says it's not quite that dramatic, though it can be dangerous. When the appendix gets clogged, pressure builds inside the cavity of the appendix, called the lumen. That chokes off blood supply to certain tissues. “The tissue dies off and falls apart, and you get perforation,” Abouzeid says. But rather than exploding, the organ leaks fluids that can infect other tissues.

A burst appendix is a medical emergency. Sometimes the body can contain the infection in an abscess, Abouzeid says, which may be identified through CT scans or X-rays and treated with IV antibiotics. But if the infection is left untreated, it can spread to other parts of the abdomen, a serious condition called peritonitis. At that point, the infection can become life-threatening.

9. SURGEONS CAN REMOVE AN APPENDIX THROUGH A TINY INCISION.

In 1894, Charles McBurney, a surgeon at New York's Roosevelt Hospital, popularized an open-cavity, muscle-splitting technique [PDF] to remove an infected appendix, which is now called an open appendectomy. Surgeons continued to use McBurney's method until the advent of laparoscopic surgery, a less invasive method in which the doctor makes small cuts in the patient's abdomen and threads a thin tube with a camera and surgical tools into the incisions. The appendix is removed through one of those incisions, which are usually less than an inch in length.

The first laparoscopic appendectomies were performed by German physician Kurt Semm in the early 1980s. Since then, laparoscopic appendectomies have become the standard treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis. For more serious infections, open appendectomies are still performed.

10. AN APPENDIX ONCE POSTPONED A ROYAL CORONATION.

When the future King Edward VII of Great Britain came down with appendicitis (or "perityphlitis," as it was called back then) in June 1902, mortality rates for the disease were as high as 26 percent. It was about two weeks before his scheduled coronation on June 26, 1902, and Edward resisted having an appendectomy, which was then a relatively new procedure. But surgeon and appendicitis expert Frederick Treves made clear that Edward would probably die without it. Treves drained Edward's infected abscess, without removing the organ, at Buckingham Palace; Edward recovered and was crowned on August 9, 1902.

11. THE WORLD'S LONGEST APPENDIX MEASURED MORE THAN 10 INCHES.

On August 26, 2006, during an autopsy at a Zagreb, Croatia hospital, surgeons obtained a 10.24-inch appendix from 72-year-old Safranco August. The deceased currently holds the Guinness World Record for "largest appendix removed."

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios