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4 More Forgotten Founding Fathers

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This Saturday is July 4, a day when Americans of all shapes and sizes will come together to commemorate the founding of their country, and the noble pursuit of life, liberty, and overcooked hamburgers. Here's a quick quiz question "“ how many people signed the Declaration of Independence? We're betting that few of you, not including the people who compulsively Googled that question, knew the answer is 56.

Fifty-six?! Yes, there were far more Founding Fathers than most people learn about in civics class. Last year, we told you about five of these men "“ Carter Braxton, Button Gwinnett, Robert Treat Paine, Edward Rutledge and William Whipple. As fun as it is to type the names "Button Gwinnett" and "William Whipple," here are four more founders you may not have heard of.

1. George Read "“ the one who voted against independence

george readYes, it's true: not all of the signers of the Declaration of Independence were in favor of independence. George Read was the lone holdout when the final vote was held in the Continental Congress on July 2, 1776.


At age 15, Read began studying the law, and he was admitted to the Philadelphia Bar in 1753, when he was only 19 years old. Before he had even passed the bar exam, however, he was entrusted with numerous legal responsibilities under the tutelage of well-respected Pennsylvania lawyer John Moland. Like many of the other Founding Fathers, he stood in opposition to Parliamentary measures like the Stamp Act in the 1760s. But for more than a decade he publicly maintained the belief that the colonies' interests and Britain's interests could be peacefully reconciled.


george read 2When he was elected to the first Continental Congress on behalf of Delaware, it looked as though his voice would be drowned out by two far more liberal delegates, Thomas McKean and Caesar Rodney. However, Rodney's asthma and skin cancer kept him out of the legislative body a good deal, which empowered Read enough to endanger Delaware's participation in the revolution (see #2 below).


Once the revolution had begun, Read defended his state admirably, raising money, troops and supplies to assist the counter-invasion war effort.

2. Caesar Rodney "“ the one who barely made it

rodney 2Any numismatists (people who study money) reading this might recognize Caesar Rodney's name. He shows up on the back of that state's quarter, mounted on a horse. Why a horse? He was a relatively minor player on the battlefield, but Rodney is best remembered for an all-night ride from Dover, Delaware to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to break a crucial tie in the Continental Congress.


Rodney was one of three delegates to the Congress from Delaware, along with George Read and Thomas McKean. But owing in part to his illnesses, Caesar spent most of his time outside of the capital, usually attending to military duties as a brigadier general in the Delaware militia. He was leading an investigation into Loyalist activity in Sussex County when, on the evening of July 1, he received a dispatch from McKean: on July 2, the delegates were going to vote on whether or not to sever ties from Britain. Read and McKean were deadlocked in their stances on independence "“ if Delaware was to be a part of the movement, Rodney's vote was needed to break the tie.


rodney quarterLeaving from his home at midnight, Rodney rode all night through a thunderstorm to the capital. The precise details of Caesar's Midnight Ride have been skewed a bit as the story entered the folklore "“ Rodney either arrived at Independence Hall just as the debate was ending or while the vote was already in progress. All versions of the story have the same dramatic ending, though; Rodney entered the hall, unkempt and covered with mud, and announced, "As I believe the voice of my constituents and of all sensible and honest men is in favor of independence, my own judgment concurs with them. I vote for independence."


This is a pretty nifty story, to be sure. But Rodney may also be remembered for what John Adams said about him: "Caesar Rodney is the oddest-looking man in the world."

3. John Witherspoon "“ the one who coined "Americanism"

John WitherspoonOriginally hailing from Scotland, Rev. John Witherspoon was the only active member of the clergy to sign the Declaration. His legacy in America, though, isn't in politics, but in education "“ Witherspoon was the sixth president of the College of New Jersey, now known as Princeton University. It took two years for representatives of the school to get Witherspoon to come to America (his wife in particular was initially opposed to the idea). Once the reverend took over at the helm in 1768, the school flourished.


According to the president's biography on the Princeton website, he was "a man of strong convictions," but introduced students to ideas with which he had publicly disagreed. He is remembered as a dynamic intellectual who brought the thinking of the Scottish Enlightenment into the mainstream in the colonies. Indeed, his ideas have a direct link to the nation's history, since the students who graduated during his tenure included one president (James Madison), one vice-president (Aaron Burr), 60 members of Congress and three Supreme Court justices.


witherspoon 2But even though he had only a meek presence in the political sphere, Witherspoon was the person who coined the term "Americanism" in an essay on language. When John Adams visited Princeton in 1774, he met with Witherspoon and was seriously impressed. The future president of the U.S. said the college president was "as high a Son of Liberty, as any man in America."


On a less historical note, Reese Witherspoon, who played Elle Woods in the Legally Blonde movies, is a direct descendant. John would surely be proud.

4. Robert Morris "“ the one who went from prince to pauper

robert morrisRobert Morris made a lot of money off of the Revolutionary War, but without his efforts, the Continental Army might not have made it through to the surrender at Yorktown. He was one of many merchants who spoke out in opposition to the Stamp Act, but the eventual Pennsylvania delegate didn't get very involved with the American effort until after Lexington & Concord. On July 1, 1776, he actually voted against independence, but unlike George Read, he was more flexible in his views. On the next day, he did not attend the final vote, which ensured that Pennsylvania would be part of the united front against the redcoats.


As George Washington faced down a war that at times looked hopeless, Morris toiled in and out of Congress to help keep the country's finances afloat. In addition to borrowing money from the states, he sponsored troops on his own on occasion, taking out personal loans and sending them the army's way. It was Morris who acquired the loan from France that financed Gen. Washington's Yorktown campaign.


robert morris 2As the Superintendent of Finance under the short-lived Articles of Confederation, Robert demanded that he should personally purchase all Army and Navy supplies and once again fell back on his own checkbook to help stabilize the fledgling country's budget.


After declining Washington's offer to be the first Secretary of the Treasury under the new Constitution, Morris became a senator for the state of Pennsylvania. To his detriment, he also began speculating, on overextended credit, in the south and in the District of Columbia. Knowing he couldn't pay off his debt, he tried to flee creditors, but to no avail. He wound up in debtors' prison for three years. Upon his release in 1801, his wealth and property had dissipated and, for the next five years until his death, the once-rich Morris lived in poverty.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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technology
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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iStock
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Health
One Bite From This Tick Can Make You Allergic to Meat
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iStock

We like to believe that there’s no such thing as a bad organism, that every creature must have its place in the world. But ticks are really making that difficult. As if Lyme disease wasn't bad enough, scientists say some ticks carry a pathogen that causes a sudden and dangerous allergy to meat. Yes, meat.

The Lone Star tick (Amblyomma americanum) mostly looks like your average tick, with a tiny head and a big fat behind, except the adult female has a Texas-shaped spot on its back—thus the name.

Unlike other American ticks, the Lone Star feeds on humans at every stage of its life cycle. Even the larvae want our blood. You can’t get Lyme disease from the Lone Star tick, but you can get something even more mysterious: the inability to safely consume a bacon cheeseburger.

"The weird thing about [this reaction] is it can occur within three to 10 or 12 hours, so patients have no idea what prompted their allergic reactions," allergist Ronald Saff, of the Florida State University College of Medicine, told Business Insider.

What prompted them was STARI, or southern tick-associated rash illness. People with STARI may develop a circular rash like the one commonly seen in Lyme disease. They may feel achy, fatigued, and fevered. And their next meal could make them very, very sick.

Saff now sees at least one patient per week with STARI and a sensitivity to galactose-alpha-1, 3-galactose—more commonly known as alpha-gal—a sugar molecule found in mammal tissue like pork, beef, and lamb. Several hours after eating, patients’ immune systems overreact to alpha-gal, with symptoms ranging from an itchy rash to throat swelling.

Even worse, the more times a person is bitten, the more likely it becomes that they will develop this dangerous allergy.

The tick’s range currently covers the southern, eastern, and south-central U.S., but even that is changing. "We expect with warming temperatures, the tick is going to slowly make its way northward and westward and cause more problems than they're already causing," Saff said. We've already seen that occur with the deer ticks that cause Lyme disease, and 2017 is projected to be an especially bad year.

There’s so much we don’t understand about alpha-gal sensitivity. Scientists don’t know why it happens, how to treat it, or if it's permanent. All they can do is advise us to be vigilant and follow basic tick-avoidance practices.

[h/t Business Insider]

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