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4 Women Who Rocked Physics

When asked to name women who have significantly contributed to science, most people shrug and say, "Marie Curie?" In fact, women have added to our scientific repertoire capabilities no less than nuclear fission and modern day alchemy, among many other discoveries.

1. Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner (1878-1968) was a quiet, self-effacing Austrian-Jewish woman who has come to be known "the mother of the atomic bomb." After studying under Boltzmann and Planck (yes, that Boltzmann and Planck), she became the acting director of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute of Chemistry in Berlin. It was there that, alongside partner Otto Hahn, she noted in an experiment that uranium-238 nuclei split into barium and krypton, along with several neutrons and a pocket of energy. Meitner was the first to describe and name the process-- "nuclear fission"-- and noted the potential for a chain reaction (Keanu Reeves not included). However, she was exiled from Germany shortly after the Anschluss, and so Hahn and two others published the research in 1938. For this, Hahn two other men won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

2. Chien-Shiung Wu

Wu.jpgChien-Shiung Wu (1912-1997) was born in China and earned her Ph.D. from UC-Berkeley in 1940. At this time, it was considered a dependable rule in matter behavior that identical particles would always act in a way that was consistent and symmetrical. However, upon observing the beta decay of cobalt-60, Wu noticed that the weak interactions between emitted beta particles caused them to strongly prefer to travel in a certain direction "“ roughly equivalent to watching air rush into a balloon of its own accord. With this research, Wu proved that nature is not always naturally symmetrical, upending a formerly watertight law. The Nobel Prize for Physics in 1957 was awarded to researchers of this discovery; Wu was not among their number.

3. Maria Goeppert-Mayer

mayer.jpgMaria Goeppert-Mayer (1906-1972) hailed from Germany and attended the University of Gottingen. After stints working with Born and Planck and teaching at Sarah Lawrence College, Goeppert-Mayer ended up in Chicago working at the Argonne National Laboratory. While there she worked with Edward Teller and Enrico Fermi, learning the ropes of nuclear physics as she went. It was at this time she developed a model of the atomic nucleus, which took the form of shells similar to the atomic shell model. She also discovered that there were certain "magic numbers" of nucleons for which the energy holding them together was less than the preceding number -- for example, it took significantly less energy to hold together 20 nucleons than it did 19 -- and she worked out the supporting mathematics. For this achievement, she won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1963.

4. Harriet Brooks

mcgill.jpgHarriet Brooks (1876-1933) was born in Canada, attended McGill University, and worked as a graduate student under Ernest Rutherford. Rutherford had noticed that radioactive thorium gave off a substance other than radioactive rays, and left it to Brooks to figure out what it was. Brooks identified the "emanation" from thorium as an element in gas form that was, strangely, not thorium. Brooks realized that this meant that one element could, with the right conditions, be used to produce a completely different element. It may sound uncool to discover that alchemy actually works roughly a millennium too late, but on the upside, nuclear transmutation is used today in tokamaks as well as fission power reactors.

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iPhone’s ‘Do Not Disturb’ Feature Is Actually Reducing Distracted Driving (a Little)
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While it’s oh-so-tempting to quickly check a text or look at Google Maps while driving, heeding the siren call of the smartphone is one of the most dangerous things you can do behind the wheel. Distracted driving led to almost 3500 deaths in the U.S. in 2016, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and even more non-fatal accidents. In the summer of 2017, Apple took steps to combat the rampant problem by including a “Do Not Disturb While Driving” setting as part of its iOS 11 upgrade. And the data shows that it’s working, as Business Insider and 9to5Mac report.

The Do Not Disturb While Driving feature allows your iPhone to sense when you’re in a moving car, and mutes all incoming calls, texts, and other notifications to keep you from being distracted by your phone. A recent survey from the insurance comparison website EverQuote found that the setting works as intended; people who kept the setting enabled did, in fact, use their phones less.

The study analyzed driver behavior recorded by EverDrive, EverQuote’s app designed to help users track and improve their safety while driving. The report found that 70 percent of EverDrive users kept the Do Not Disturb setting on rather than disabling it. Those drivers who kept the setting enabled used their phone 8 percent less.

The survey examined the behavior of 500,000 EverDrive users between September 19, 2017—just after Apple debuted the feature to the public—and October 25, 2017. The sample size is arguably small, and the study could have benefited from a much longer period of analysis. Even if people are looking at their phones just a little less in the car, though, that’s a win. Looking away from the road for just a split second to glance at an incoming notification can have pretty dire consequences if you’re cruising along at 65 mph.

When safety is baked into the design of technology, people are more likely to follow the rules. Plenty of people might not care enough to enable the Do Not Disturb feature themselves, but if it’s automatically enabled, plenty of people won’t go through the work to opt out.

[h/t 9to5Mac]

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Apple Wants to Patent a Keyboard You’re Allowed to Spill Coffee On
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In the future, eating and drinking near your computer keyboard might not be such a dangerous game. On March 8, Apple filed a patent application for a keyboard designed to prevent liquids, crumbs, dust, and other “contaminants” from getting inside, Dezeen reports.

Apple has previously filed several patents—including one announced on March 15—surrounding the idea of a keyless keyboard that would work more like a trackpad or a touchscreen, using force-sensitive technology instead of mechanical keys. The new anti-crumb keyboard patent that Apple filed, however, doesn't get into the specifics of how the anti-contamination keyboard would work. It isn’t a patent for a specific product the company is going to debut anytime soon, necessarily, but a patent for a future product the company hopes to develop. So it’s hard to say how this extra-clean keyboard might work—possibly because Apple hasn’t fully figured that out yet. It’s just trying to lay down the legal groundwork for it.

Here’s how the patent describes the techniques the company might use in an anti-contaminant keyboard:

"These mechanisms may include membranes or gaskets that block contaminant ingress, structures such as brushes, wipers, or flaps that block gaps around key caps; funnels, skirts, bands, or other guard structures coupled to key caps that block contaminant ingress into and/or direct containments away from areas under the key caps; bellows that blast contaminants with forced gas out from around the key caps, into cavities in a substrate of the keyboard, and so on; and/or various active or passive mechanisms that drive containments away from the keyboard and/or prevent and/or alleviate containment ingress into and/or through the keyboard."

Thanks to a change in copyright law in 2011, the U.S. now gives ownership of an idea to the person who first files for a patent, not the person with the first working prototype. Apple is especially dogged about applying for patents, filing plenty of patents each year that never amount to much.

Still, they do reveal what the company is focusing on, like foldable phones (the subject of multiple patents in recent years) and even pizza boxes for its corporate cafeteria. Filing a lot of patents allows companies like Apple to claim the rights to intellectual property for technology the company is working on, even when there's no specific invention yet.

As The New York Times explained in 2012, “patent applications often try to encompass every potential aspect of a new technology,” rather than a specific approach. (This allows brands to sue competitors if they come out with something similar, as Apple has done with Samsung, HTC, and other companies over designs the company views as ripping off iPhone technology.)

That means it could be a while before we see a coffee-proof keyboard from Apple, if the company comes out with one at all. But we can dream.

[h/t Dezeen]

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