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How Did You Know Daniel Wilson?

I'm happy to announce a winner to our last How Did You Know? 5-day trivia hunt. Please meet Daniel Wilson of Greenville, Michigan, who blew through the final puzzle and got all the answers within 16 minutes of the bell! Considering how much we asked of you all in that final puzzle, 16 minutes is remarkable. Dozens of you got all the answers correct, and I'll be sure to post the top 10 in the order we received them over on our Facebook page soon. One word of caution: many of you forgot to tell us how you came up with an answer. If we're asking you to figure out something like the 523h56-529 code, you need to explain how you got to "22." Understood? Cool! Next time we know you'll get them all correct.

Meantime, our random winners this month are Kate, Caro and Sydney, three sisters who always submit their answers in the form of a poem. Congrats gals! We'll be in touch soon with your spoils.
See everyone back for another HDYK on the 30th of June, when Daniel Wilson will be looking to defend the title. Meantime, let's meet our winner and review his answers:

I live in Greenville, Michigan, though I'm originally from Battle Creek, better known as the home of
Kellogg's. My wife KT and I have been married for four years, and our daughter Emily just turned
three. I pursued a degree in history at Western Michigan University, although right now I work
in a factory that makes reproduction parts for classic automobiles (life is funny like that.)

The picture is indeed me shaking hands with MR. MONOPOLY. In April, I was privileged to compete
in the 2009 MONOPOLY U.S. National Championship. Though I didn't win the $20,580 grand prize,
I did manage to place a rather respectable 12th overall. I'm also now the number one MONOPOLY
player in the state of Michigan, and I will be for four years until the next national tournament.

I've always loved games and puzzles, so I'm happy to win the HYDK? challenge. I plan to buy all
the mental_floss books I don't already own. I'd like to give a shout-out to my Facebook friends
who helped me with the album cover challenge, since the music questions always give me problems,
and also to my wife KT, who knew the first game's final score by heart, since she's been a HUGE
Packer fan all her life.

Oh, and GO BEARS! (Sorry, honey.)

Final Answer

The stadium is Lambeau Field.

First game score: Packers 21, Bears 17

Day 1

Part 1: Emperor Zerg stopped the KJ juggernaut in Game 75; Jennings therefore won 74 games.

Part 2: Coldplay's "We Never Change" and Radiohead's "Backdrifts".

Part 3: 523H56-529 5=t, 2=w, 3=e, H=n, 6=y, 9=o; twenty-two. [ed note: that's one position down and one to the right on a standard QWERTY keyboard]
Image is of a football, laces out.

Day 2

Part 1: "more cowbell": "Don't Fear the Reaper" by Blue Oyster Cult.

Album covers:

1: Nirvana, "Nevermind"

2: Bob Dylan, "The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan"

3: Michael Jackson, "Thriller"

4: Eminem, "The Marshall Mathers LP"

5: Christina Aguilera, "Christina Aguilera"

6: White Stripes, "Elephant"

7: Amy Winehouse, "Back to Black"

Day 3

Part 1: Bob Moog invented the monophonic Minimoog keyboard.

Part 2: Modern pianos have 52 white keys and 36 black keys.

The missing numbers are 102, 86, and 36. [ed note: this was a 12x12 magic square]
5236+102=5338. The word displayed is BEES.

The image is a cub and mother bear.

Day 4

Part 1: "Lethal Latte There": "The Tell-Tale Heart".

Part 2: Each word's color defines what to do to return it to normal.

Red words: change encrypted Bs to Cs (original Bs stay as is)

Blue words: remove all N's

Green words: move the first letter to the end position

Orange words: read backward

Purple words: move the last letter to the first position

Pink words: replace the vowels with the previous vowel alphabetically

Black words are left as they appear.

The translated message reads:

"Crack the code by (cake) figuring out the rules that govern each set of colored words. Extra words have been (icing) inserted into each sentence (recipe). Note them in order as (cook) they originally appear and circle the first letter of each. These six (lemon) (eggs) letters combine to spell out your final answer to this puzzle."

Cake Icing Recipe Cook Lemon Eggs=circle.

The image is an outline of the state of Wisconsin.

Day 5

Day 1: 22x2 is 44.

Day 2: Thriller was released on 11/30/1982. Ken Jennings' streak ended on 11/30/2004.

44 degrees 30 minutes 11 seconds.

Day 3: Bob Moog was 71 when he died. 71+17=88.

Day 4: A circle of diameter 1 has a circumference of pi. Pi=3.14.

-88 degrees 3 minutes 14 seconds.

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Penn Vet Working Dog Center
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
New Program Trains Dogs to Sniff Out Art Smugglers
Penn Vet Working Dog Center
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

Soon, the dogs you see sniffing out contraband at airports may not be searching for drugs or smuggled Spanish ham. They might be looking for stolen treasures.

K-9 Artifact Finders, a new collaboration between New Hampshire-based cultural heritage law firm Red Arch and the University of Pennsylvania, is training dogs to root out stolen antiquities looted from archaeological sites and museums. The dogs would be stopping them at borders before the items can be sold elsewhere on the black market.

The illegal antiquities trade nets more than $3 billion per year around the world, and trafficking hits countries dealing with ongoing conflict, like Syria and Iraq today, particularly hard. By one estimate, around half a million artifacts were stolen from museums and archaeological sites throughout Iraq between 2003 and 2005 alone. (Famously, the craft-supply chain Hobby Lobby was fined $3 million in 2017 for buying thousands of ancient artifacts looted from Iraq.) In Syria, the Islamic State has been known to loot and sell ancient artifacts including statues, jewelry, and art to fund its operations.

But the problem spans across the world. Between 2007 and 2016, U.S. Customs and Border Control discovered more than 7800 cultural artifacts in the U.S. looted from 30 different countries.

A yellow Lab sniffs a metal cage designed to train dogs on scent detection.
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

K-9 Artifact Finders is the brainchild of Rick St. Hilaire, the executive director of Red Arch. His non-profit firm researches cultural heritage property law and preservation policy, including studying archaeological site looting and antiquities trafficking. Back in 2015, St. Hilaire was reading an article about a working dog trained to sniff out electronics that was able to find USB drives, SD cards, and other data storage devices. He wondered, if dogs could be trained to identify the scents of inorganic materials that make up electronics, could they be trained to sniff out ancient pottery?

To find out, St. Hilaire tells Mental Floss, he contacted the Penn Vet Working Dog Center, a research and training center for detection dogs. In December 2017, Red Arch, the Working Dog Center, and the Penn Museum (which is providing the artifacts to train the dogs) launched K-9 Artifact Finders, and in late January 2018, the five dogs selected for the project began their training, starting with learning the distinct smell of ancient pottery.

“Our theory is, it is a porous material that’s going to have a lot more odor than, say, a metal,” says Cindy Otto, the executive director of the Penn Vet Working Dog Center and the project’s principal investigator.

As you might imagine, museum curators may not be keen on exposing fragile ancient materials to four Labrador retrievers and a German shepherd, and the Working Dog Center didn’t want to take any risks with the Penn Museum’s priceless artifacts. So instead of letting the dogs have free rein to sniff the materials themselves, the project is using cotton balls. The researchers seal the artifacts (broken shards of Syrian pottery) in airtight bags with a cotton ball for 72 hours, then ask the dogs to find the cotton balls in the lab. They’re being trained to disregard the smell of the cotton ball itself, the smell of the bag it was stored in, and ideally, the smell of modern-day pottery, eventually being able to zero in on the smell that distinguishes ancient pottery specifically.

A dog looks out over the metal "pinhweel" training mechanism.
Penn Vet Working Dog Center

“The dogs are responding well,” Otto tells Mental Floss, explaining that the training program is at the stage of "exposing them to the odor and having them recognize it.”

The dogs involved in the project were chosen for their calm-but-curious demeanors and sensitive noses (one also works as a drug-detection dog when she’s not training on pottery). They had to be motivated enough to want to hunt down the cotton balls, but not aggressive or easily distracted.

Right now, the dogs train three days a week, and will continue to work on their pottery-detection skills for the first stage of the project, which the researchers expect will last for the next nine months. Depending on how the first phase of the training goes, the researchers hope to be able to then take the dogs out into the field to see if they can find the odor of ancient pottery in real-life situations, like in suitcases, rather than in a laboratory setting. Eventually, they also hope to train the dogs on other types of objects, and perhaps even pinpoint the chemical signatures that make artifacts smell distinct.

Pottery-sniffing dogs won’t be showing up at airport customs or on shipping docks soon, but one day, they could be as common as drug-sniffing canines. If dogs can detect low blood sugar or find a tiny USB drive hidden in a house, surely they can figure out if you’re smuggling a sculpture made thousands of years ago in your suitcase.

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