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The Weekend Links

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Taking a moment away from odd uses of a piano keyboard, here are 13 super cool computer keyboards and 15 more that are awfully strange. (Thanks Jan!)
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This spider can't be scary - it's smiling at me! When I scrolled down I couldn't help but laugh. Yes, this smiley spider exists to mock its prey to death with a cheerful visage.
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Indeed, not all insects and related brethren are strictly creepy-crawly. In fact, some are downright desirable to meet.

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From the Annals of Too Much Time: Toilet Paper Origami.
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Don't let a reliance on social networking interfere with actual human contact - here are Seven Tips for Making Good Conversation With a Stranger for those of you who need a refresher (or for anyone - idle chit chat is the bane of most people's existence!)
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Have you ever sung along with a catchy song but felt a residual guilt afterwards because you didn't agree with its lyrics? Here's a list of 11 misogynistic songs that get a lot of love despite their questionable message.
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Flossy reader Amanda sent in this link to this panoramic screen view that neither of us can explain but both agree is really cool!
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24 hour bad news coverage on six channels about the economy, stock prices, wars, fire and famine bringing you down? Fear not! Sarah@Home (not to be confused with other Flossy contributor Sarah in CA) recommends you visit the Good News Network to get your fill of people doing things RIGHT.
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If that's not enough though to brighten your day, this tiny hedgehog will surely do the trick. Its powers of cute are infinite!

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A collection of true (and manipulated) warning signs that explain visually why you should heed their call of safety.
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Amateur Astrophotography that has resulted in some rather beautiful pictures of space (helpful for imagining you are cruising through space at Warp with young Spock and Kirk ... ok maybe that's just me)
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Who might have the best wardrobe of all time? No current actress can come close to this dame - American dancer Ruth St Denis shows off her enviable and theatrical late-Edwardian fashions.
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Extra! Extra! Read all about it: a list of 80s Bad Guys and where they are doing their evil now. You have been warned!
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If you have money to burn and plenty of different groups of people to shock, this ridiculous, possible offensive fake shark attack wet suit may be right up your alley!
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We've taken a look in the past at the world's most dangerous roads, but what about most dangerous bridges? Only one or two look truly terrifying to me, but the rest may only be dangerous to those afraid of heights!
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The Lego crazy continues: 21 movie posters ... now in Lego Vision!

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Cannibalism ... in space! It seems that the missing link in Pulsar evolution is in fact a cannibal star.

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Hope everyone has a splendid long weekend! If you're lounging around surfing the internet, don't forget to send your finds to FlossyLinks@gmail.com!

[Last Weekend's Links]

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
technology
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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iStock
Animals
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Scientists Think They Know How Whales Got So Big
May 24, 2017
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iStock

It can be difficult to understand how enormous the blue whale—the largest animal to ever exist—really is. The mammal can measure up to 105 feet long, have a tongue that can weigh as much as an elephant, and have a massive, golf cart–sized heart powering a 200-ton frame. But while the blue whale might currently be the Andre the Giant of the sea, it wasn’t always so imposing.

For the majority of the 30 million years that baleen whales (the blue whale is one) have occupied the Earth, the mammals usually topped off at roughly 30 feet in length. It wasn’t until about 3 million years ago that the clade of whales experienced an evolutionary growth spurt, tripling in size. And scientists haven’t had any concrete idea why, Wired reports.

A study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B might help change that. Researchers examined fossil records and studied phylogenetic models (evolutionary relationships) among baleen whales, and found some evidence that climate change may have been the catalyst for turning the large animals into behemoths.

As the ice ages wore on and oceans were receiving nutrient-rich runoff, the whales encountered an increasing number of krill—the small, shrimp-like creatures that provided a food source—resulting from upwelling waters. The more they ate, the more they grew, and their bodies adapted over time. Their mouths grew larger and their fat stores increased, helping them to fuel longer migrations to additional food-enriched areas. Today blue whales eat up to four tons of krill every day.

If climate change set the ancestors of the blue whale on the path to its enormous size today, the study invites the question of what it might do to them in the future. Changes in ocean currents or temperature could alter the amount of available nutrients to whales, cutting off their food supply. With demand for whale oil in the 1900s having already dented their numbers, scientists are hoping that further shifts in their oceanic ecosystem won’t relegate them to history.

[h/t Wired]

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