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The Quick 10: 10 Nursery Rhyme Interpretations

If you're like me, you've probably grown up your entire life without putting much thought into the nursery rhymes drilled into your head since you could listen. But there are tales behind each of them "“ whether they're accurate or not is another story! Here are 10 of the possible meanings behind 10 classic rhymes.

LAMB1. Mary Had a Little Lamb was inspired by a little girl named Mary Sawyer who"¦ yes, you guessed it "“ owned a pet lamb. Her brother, being mischievous as most brothers are, suggested that she take the lamb to school with her one day. How the poem came about (it was a poem before it became a song and a nursery rhyme) is debated. As an adult, Mary recalled that a young man was visiting the classroom that day with his uncle, the Reverend Lemuel Capen. He witnessed the entire Lamb Incident and thought it was so funny that he wrote Mary a little poem and gave it to her the next day. The first time it was published, though, it was credited to Sarah Josepha Hale. Some people think the first half of the poem was written as Mary Sawyer suggested, and Sarah Hale added the rest when she published Poems for our Children in 1830.

2. Humpty Dumpty counts at least four different origins, but the one that seems to get the most credit is the theory that Humpty Dumpty was a cannon used in the 1648 siege of Colchester during the English Civil War. People think this is so because of an additional verse that no one ever uses in the rhyme for little kids:

In Sixteen Hundred and Forty-Eight
When England suffered the pains of state
The Roundheads lay siege to Colchester town
Where the king's men still fought for the crown
There One-Eyed Thompson stood on the wall
A gunner of deadliest aim of all
From St. Mary's Tower his cannon he fired
Humpty-Dumpty was its name
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall...

However, it turns out that this verse was written as a joke by a professor for publication in the Oxford Magazine in 1956. The truth is, we don't have any proof that Humpty Dumpty was a cannon, although Colchester has apparently glommed on to the idea and now promotes the great Humpty Dumpty cannon as part of its tourist trade. There is evidence, however, that "humpty dumpty" was a phrase used to describe an alcoholic drink that was made of brandy boiled with ale, so perhaps it's really a nursery rhyme about the loss of booze.

3. Jack Be Nimble is kind of a mystery when you think about it. Sure, Jack might be nimble and quick, but why would he waste those skills jumping over sticks of wax? Shouldn't he be trying out for the track team or something? Well, when the rhyme popped up somewhere around 1815, jumping candlesticks was something of a superstition. If you could hop over it without putting the flame out, you were guaranteed to have good luck.

4. Ring Around the Rosie, or Ring a Ring o' Roses, is not about the plague. It wasn't even published until 1881 and the symptoms "described" in the verse don't even fit the plague. Plus, there are many different variations on the rhyme other than the one we associate with the plague "“ for instance, one version says "Ring a ring a rosie, a bottle full of posie, all the girls in our town, ring for little Josie." Snopes calls this one bunk.

JILL5. Jack and Jill has so many interpretations, it's hard to pick just one. I kind of like the one that says Jack and "Gill" are units of measurement. King Charles I tried to change the taxes on liquid measures so that people would receive less but be taxed the same. A "Jack" was a half pint and a "Gill" was a quarter pint. Another interpretation suggests that Jack and Jill actually represent the beheadings of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, which makes sense "“ "Jack fell down and broke his crown and Jill came tumbling after," until you recite the second verse to the rhyme. Louis XVI definitely did not get up and trot home "as fast as he could caper; and went to bed to mend his head with vinegar and brown paper."

6. Baa, Baa, Black Sheep has two possible origins: a commentary on the wool tax which survived from 1275 to the 15th century, or a connection to the slave trade. Both are pretty questionable: since Baa, Baa, Black Sheep wasn't published until 1744, the rhyme would have to have been passed down orally for hundreds of years to have survived (which is possible, but questionable). The slave trade theory has been discredited by scholars, but I can offer you a cold, hard fact: "Black Sheep" and Glenn Miller's "In the Mood" were the first songs to be saved and played on a computer.

7. Little Jack Horner might be about Henry VIII dissolving the monasteries in the mid-1500s. There was man at Glastonbury Abbey named Thomas Horner who was steward to the abbot. The story goes that before the official word that the monastery would be closed was passed down, Horner went to London with the deeds hidden away inside a big Christmas pie. He ended up keeping the deed to Mells Manor himself, which is the "big plum" he pulled out. And some of that is definitely true "“ records show that Horner did take ownership of the manor during that time period. But what we don't know is if the nursery rhyme is actually referencing that particular incident.

8. Ride a Cock Horse to Banbury Cross apparently refers to a giant cross that used to be in Banbury but was removed by the Puritans in 1602. The "fine lady" referenced has thought, at various times, to be Lady Godiva, Queen Elizabeth I or even a misinterpretation of "Fiennes." Celia Fiennes was an English woman who set off across the countryside just to see different towns and cities in a time when travelling for fun wasn't really the thing.

COLE9. Colchester has another nursery rhyme claim, maybe: Old King Cole. That particular "merry old soul" could be based on a King Cole who lived in Colchester all the way back in the third century. Some think "Colchester" is interpreted as "Cole's Castle" even though most historians will tell you the "Col" part of the name is derived from the River Colne. Merry Old Soul candidate #2 is King Cole of Northern Britain who lived sometime around 400 A.D. Considering that our first recorded instance of "Old King Cole" doesn't occur until 1708, this is another one that would have had to somehow survive orally for more than 1,000 years. Possible? Maybe.

10. Three Blind Mice is a pretty horrifying tale when you think about it "“ the poor, sightless mice practically get their backsides whacked off with a butcher knife. And if you consider one of the other versions that ends with "shee scrapte her tripe licke thou the knife," which indicates that she eats the poor things after torturing them, it's positively nightmare-inducing. One theory says the little ditty is based on the equally horrific deeds of Bloody Mary, AKA Queen Mary I of England. In her efforts to restore England to Catholicism, she had hundreds of people burned at the stake and otherwise tortured and maimed. This included three very prominent men "“ two bishops and an archbishop, later referred to as the Oxford Martyrs. Could this men and Bloody Mary be the inspiration behind Three Blind Mice? Some say yes.

Have you heard any interpretations that I missed? I think in most cases, the rhymes were probably just rhymes and our political brains have tried to assign meaning to them after the fact. But it's fun to speculate anyway. If you have some fuel to add to the fire, let us know in the comments.

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Animals
Why Tiny 'Hedgehog Highways' Are Popping Up Around London
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Hedgehogs as pets have gained popularity in recent years, but in many parts of the world, they're still wild animals. That includes London, where close to a million of the creatures roam streets, parks, and gardens, seeking out wood and vegetation to take refuge in. Now, Atlas Obscura reports that animal activists are transforming the city into a more hospitable environment for hedgehogs.

Barnes Hedgehogs, a group founded by Michel Birkenwald in the London neighborhood of Barnes four years ago, is responsible for drilling tiny "hedgehog highways" through walls around London. The passages are just wide enough for the animals to climb through, making it easier for them to travel from one green space to the next.

London's wild hedgehog population has seen a sharp decline in recent decades. Though it's hard to pin down accurate numbers for the elusive animals, surveys have shown that the British population has dwindled by tens of millions since the 1950s. This is due to factors like human development and habitat destruction by farmers who aren't fond of the unattractive shrubs, hedges, and dead wood that hedgehogs use as their homes.

When such environments are left to grow, they can still be hard for hedgehogs to access. Carving hedgehog highways through the stone partitions and wooden fences bordering parks and gardens is one way Barnes Hedgehogs is making life in the big city a little easier for its most prickly residents.

[h/t Atlas Obscura]

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Big Questions
Where Should You Place the Apostrophe in President's Day?
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Happy Presidents’ Day! Or is it President’s Day? Or Presidents Day? What you call the national holiday depends on where you are, who you’re honoring, and how you think we’re celebrating.

Saying "President’s Day" infers that the day belongs to a singular president, such as George Washington or Abraham Lincoln, whose birthdays are the basis for the holiday. On the other hand, referring to it as "Presidents’ Day" means that the day belongs to all of the presidents—that it’s their day collectively. Finally, calling the day "Presidents Day"—plural with no apostrophe—would indicate that we’re honoring all POTUSes past and present (yes, even Andrew Johnson), but that no one president actually owns the day.

You would think that in the nearly 140 years since "Washington’s Birthday" was declared a holiday in 1879, someone would have officially declared a way to spell the day. But in fact, even the White House itself hasn’t chosen a single variation for its style guide. They spelled it “President’s Day” here and “Presidents’ Day” here.


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Maybe that indecision comes from the fact that Presidents Day isn’t even a federal holiday. The federal holiday is technically still called “Washington’s Birthday,” and states can choose to call it whatever they want. Some states, like Iowa, don’t officially acknowledge the day at all. And the location of the punctuation mark is a moot point when individual states choose to call it something else entirely, like “George Washington’s Birthday and Daisy Gatson Bates Day” in Arkansas, or “Birthdays of George Washington/Thomas Jefferson” in Alabama. (Alabama loves to split birthday celebrations, by the way; the third Monday in January celebrates both Martin Luther King, Jr., and Robert E. Lee.)

You can look to official grammar sources to declare the right way, but even they don’t agree. The AP Stylebook prefers “Presidents Day,” while Chicago Style uses “Presidents’ Day.”

The bottom line: There’s no rhyme or reason to any of it. Go with what feels right. And even then, if you’re in one of those states that has chosen to spell it “President’s Day”—Washington, for example—and you use one of the grammar book stylings instead, you’re still technically wrong.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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