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Happy Birthday, Mini!

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It was 50 years ago this week that the Mini "“ symbol of all that is British, mod, and cool "“ first rolled off the line. And from The Italian Job to, well, The Italian Job, the Mini has remained a tiny, economical and very stylish way to get from point A to point B. But how did the Mini become the Mini? Here's a brief history of the car that proved that less truly is more.

In the beginning"¦

The Mini was the British Motor Corporation's answer to the "bubble car," those weird, tiny cars that were economical, sure, but tended to have the door in the front, and in some cases, an actual rounded bubble on top. Leonard Lord, head of the British Motor Corporation, hated the bubble car and vowed to drive it off the roads. It was also a response to the petrol rationing as a result of the 1956 Suez Canal crisis.

The directive was to design a car that used an existing engine, was smaller than anything else the corporation already made but could still seat four people, and would drive the bubble car to extinction.

The designer, Alex Issigonis, who had previously designed the iconic Morris Minor, came up with the Mini.

It was a pretty ingenious design: In order to accommodate the four-seater dictate, Issigonis dedicated 80 percent of car's 10-foot length to passengers and luggage space. But he still had to fit the engine and the gearbox, which he did by turning the engine sideways and sliding the gearbox underneath it; this also meant that oil companies needed to develop a kind of oil that could be used by both the engine and the gearbox. He put the wheels at the extreme corners of the car and made them incredibly small, all in order to save space. This was combined with hardwearing tires developed by Dunlop that could last more than 5,000 miles, rubber suspension and quick steering, lending the Mini a particular agility and durability.

The Mini came off the line in 1959 in two models, the Morris Mini Minor and the Austin Seven, at a cost of £497 and £537 respectively. The only available colors were Farina Grey, Tartan Red or Speedwell Blue. It was not, however, an immediate success.

Making the Mini

The first run of the cars did not auger well: Only a few thousand of the "fifty-niners," as Mini-maniacs call them, were made, but they were built rather crudely. The floor of the car had been welded on the wrong way, meaning that driving the car in wet weather meant uncomfortably wet feet for drivers and long and expensive warranty claims for British Motor Corporation.

mini-beatles.jpgStill, despite the resolution of some of those issues and the fact that the Mini was relatively cheap, good quality, and well received by the motoring press, people were initially suspicious of it. But, as any good marketer knows, all it takes is the right celebrity "“ or celebrities "“ and any product can be popular. In the Mini's case, it was actor Peter Sellers, the Beatles, Twiggy, Lulu and even the Queen, as well as its popularity with racing drivers, who appreciated its superior, go-cart like handling, that catapulted the car to fame. By the 1960s, the Mini was the internationally recognized symbol of Swinging London, a kind of cheeky representation of freedom and modernity. [Image courtesy of the Beatle Brunch Club.]

But it was also beset by problems. Mismanagement by the British Motor Corporation and British Leyland, as it later became, led to engineering and design issues with the car not being fixed, while the company focused on purely cosmetic changes in subsequent editions. The cars still had leaks, didn't always drive well in the rain, sported rubber seals that didn't stay on or cracked, the engine rocked, the exhaust fell off, the electrical system was a mess, and the speedometer was unreliable, at best. So as car manufacturing continued to improve in other parts of the world and in Britain, the Mini was very slow to change.

And, while incredibly popular, because the car was routinely sold at or below production costs, the car's manufacturer barely made any money off it at all "“ in fact, in the 1970s, Ford bought a Mini for around £500, took it apart, and figured that the cars were being sold at a loss of £30 each.

Re-introducing the Mini

Through the 1980s and "˜90s, the Mini was still being produced, albeit on a smaller scale. While the car was still popular in England and in places that appreciated its retro-cool cultural cache, it had become more of a statement purchase than a mass-market item and sales dwindled.

mini-2001.jpgIn 1994, BMW assumed control of the BMC's Rover Group, which owned the Mini label, made several improvements to the Mini, including an airbag. But in 2000, BMW made the controversial decision that a whole new Mini was the way to go and began producing its own, re-vamped and larger version of the Mini. October 2000 saw the last of the old-style Minis "“ after 5,387,862 of the cars had been sold. Mini aficionados and purists claimed that the new MINI (the all-caps are part of the name) could never fill the old Mini's shoes. Or rather, that it over-filled them, in a garish, inappropriate, un-Mini sort of way. Fans of the new MINI, however, claimed that the new version was the logical evolution of the car and that it was a long "“ long "“ time coming.

Even so, many old school minis still roam the streets of London today, even as the new school minis have reached more than a million sold. [Image courtesy of Marketallica.]

Mini-owning celebrities

Just like when the Mini first hit the Swinging London scene, celebrities love the Mini. Celebrities like Madonna, who even wrote a little rap about her Mini, in her song "American Life" ("I drive my Mini-Cooper and I'm feeling super-dooper.") Other celebrity Mini owners include erstwhile hobbit Elijah Wood, driving his appropriately small car around LA; mini-skirt designer Mary Quant; super hip designer Paul Smith; preternaturally pale Twilight actress Kristen Stewart; and actress Goldie Hawn.

The Mini has also featured prominently in many films and TV shows, including The Bourne Identity, both versions of The Italian Job, and British sci-fi hit, Dr. Who.

Later this month, Mini will celebrate its golden anniversary with a three-day festival featuring Mini racing, a concert headlined by rocker Paul Weller, and all manner of Mini-mania dorkery.

If you own one, will you be celebrating the Mini "“ or the MINI "“ this month?

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Opening Ceremony
These $425 Jeans Can Turn Into Jorts
May 19, 2017
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Opening Ceremony

Modular clothing used to consist of something simple, like a reversible jacket. Today, it’s a $425 pair of detachable jeans.

Apparel retailer Opening Ceremony recently debuted a pair of “2 in 1 Y/Project” trousers that look fairly peculiar. The legs are held to the crotch by a pair of loops, creating a disjointed C-3PO effect. Undo the loops and you can now remove the legs entirely, leaving a pair of jean shorts in their wake. The result goes from this:


Opening Ceremony

To this:


Opening Ceremony

The company also offers a slightly different cut with button tabs in black for $460. If these aren’t audacious enough for you, the Y/Project line includes jumpsuits with removable legs and garter-equipped jeans.

[h/t Mashable]