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Catching Up With The Flu: 20th Century Pandemics

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As panic mounts over the increasing number of swine flu cases, it looks like the world is ending, with a sniffle and sneeze. But this certainly isn't the first time humanity has had to gird itself against the threat of pandemic and, luckily for all of us, lived to tell about it. Here's a little background on four 20th century outbreaks.

1. The Spanish Flu of 1918: Don't Blame the Spanish

The absolute worst flu pandemic in recent memory was the so-called Spanish flu outbreak of 1918. Somewhere between 20 and 50 million people died from the Spanish Flu "“ more than the number of people who died in World War I.

But don't blame the Spanish. In fact, the virus was likely spread by US soldiers shipped off to fight in World War I "“ the first recorded case of the flu came on March 11, 1918, at Fort Riley, Kansas. Within a week, the virus had made the rounds through the unsanitary military base "“ 522 men reported to the camp infirmary, all suffering from the same illness. The flu moved on from there, primarily through military channels, popping up all over the southern Eastern Seaboard, in California, and other states throughout the Union, infecting 28 percent of Americans. Military transport ships then became floating Petri dishes, incubating the disease and then releasing it on arrival in France. From there, the flu ravaged the rest of Europe, already in a weakened state after years of devastating war. And this particular strain of the flu was terrifying "“ sufferers often succumbed to total respiration failure within hours, essentially suffocating to death in the fluid that filled their lungs.

It was also puzzling "“ where most flu strains affected the weakest members of the population, the elderly, the very young, and people already ill of health, this flu largely affected healthy young people. The fact that a war was on also contributed to the rapid spread of the virus, in part due to the fact that affected countries didn't acknowledge the pandemic.

The Spanish flu got its name from the fact that Spanish papers were the first ones to report that millions of their people were dying from the flu; other countries, on both sides of the Allied and Central Powers lines and though similarly affected by the virus, kept mum for fear of revealing a weakness to the enemy.

Moreover, the war effort left the US and other countries without sufficient medical care "“ many trained doctors and nurses had gone to the front.

Waves of the virus broke on US shores, each time killing more and more people and prompting drastic measures. In Philadelphia, according to a contemporary New York Times article, courts were adjourned, theaters were closed, churches asked to suspend services, football games cancelled, even the sale of liquor prohibited. But other communities were less stringent in their attempts to curtail the illness and more people died.

The flu also inspired, much in the same way the plague allegedly inspired that "pocket full of posies" rhyme, a creepy schoolgirl jump rope rhyme:

"I had a little bird
And its name was Enza
I opened the window
And in-flew-Enza"

After spending several long months exhausting the population, the virus disappeared before it could even be isolated. It's been since identified as a "pure" avian virus, meaning that it adapted from a bird-based illness to possess the necessary features for easy human to human transmission.

2. The Asian Flu of 1957: Science in Action

flu.jpgBy 1957, scientists had a better handle on the whole vaccine, immunology, epidemiology thing, so when the first cases of Asian Flu popped up in China in February 1957, they identified it quickly. But vaccines for the virus weren't available until August 1957, giving the disease several months to spread across the globe. By fall, every continent, every region had seen cases of the virus.

The virus killed more than 2 million people worldwide, 70,000 people in the US alone. In the first wave of the disease, which crossed the globe in the summer and fall of 1957, the illness also proved particularly virulent among school children, young adults, and pregnant women. In the second wave, which hit in the early part of 1958, elderly people were its victims.

Unlike during the Spanish flu pandemic, US medical personnel were somewhat more proactive in clamping down on the Asian flu outbreak. Several major networks used the relatively new medium of television to quickly distribute information on how to deal with the flu: One program featured actors demonstrating symptoms of the flu, animated cartoons explaining how vaccinations work, and sober discussions of where the Asian flu came from and what could and could not be done about it ("the new miracle or wonder drugs," antibiotics, the program cautions, could not be used to treat the flu).

Elsewhere, communities jumped into action: At the University of Illinois, for example, health officers set up 336 hospital cots in an ice rink to prepare for the "worst case scenario."

This virus petered out within a year, and while deadly, had little of the devastating effect of the Spanish flu.

3. Hong Kong Flu-ey of 1968

This pandemic was considered more mild than the two that preceded it; around 1 million people are estimated to have died as a result to the pandemic, however, this flu spread more slowly than the previous two, perhaps owing to a resistance built up from the previous pandemic. The virus was first noticed in China in mid-July; by August, more than 500,000 cases in Hong Kong alone were reported.

The Hong Kong flu was also one of the many unfortunate side effects of the war in Vietnam: Though the virus was first spotted in China, soldiers returning from the Vietnamese front brought the disease home. In three months, the Hong Kong flu had made its way from California across America, proving lethal primarily for the elderly and young children. Europe and the UK were hit by the pandemic, but were largely unfazed: In the UK, for example, death from flu and flu-related illness was actually lower that year than it had been the previous year.

4. Swine Flu the First, 1976: The Pandemic That Wasn't

Scary as it is now, the first time swine flu appeared in the States was more of a whimper than a bang.

The virus first popped up in early February 1976, when a 19-year-old private at Fort Dix, New Jersey, reported to his superior that he felt ill and tired, although not so bad as to skip the training hike later that day. He died within 24 hours. It was echoes of the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic all over again.

An autopsy revealed that the young soldier had contracted swine flu; shortly after, other soldiers were admitted to the hospital with the same symptoms and officials soon found that 500 people at the base were infected with the virus, though they hadn't become ill.

ford_getting_swine_flu_shot.jpgUpon hearing about the potential pandemic, President Gerald Ford ordered the mobilization of a nationwide vaccination program, at a cost of $135 million in 1976 dollars "“ that'd be roughly $505 million now. After the first reported infection in February, the virus pretty much laid low for the next few months.

In October 1976, health officials, armed with a vaccination and a healthy dose of scaremongering, took to the streets. Propaganda about the potential pandemic was more frightening than the actual thing and possibly even more frightening than the news reports this time around.

Health officials tried hard to terrify the populace into getting flu shots with an ominous voice intoning "a swine flu epidemic may be coming" over images of people lying in hospital sickbeds. It worked: More than 40 million Americans, a quarter of the population, got their flu shots.

However, that may have not been the best idea "“ while the flu itself only killed one person, the vaccine killed more than 30. Within two months after the mass inoculations began, 500 people came down with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a paralyzing nerve disease.

This, combined with the fact that the prophesied epidemic never really materialized, didn't exactly help Ford's flagging political career: While the dismal economic state probably had more to do with it, Ford lost re-election that year.

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10 Memorable Neil deGrasse Tyson Quotes
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Michael Campanella/Getty Images

Neil deGrasse Tyson is America's preeminent badass astrophysicist. He's a passionate advocate for science, NASA, and education. He's also well-known for a little incident involving Pluto. And the man holds nearly 20 honorary doctorates (in addition to his real one). In honor of his 59th birthday, here are 10 of our favorite Neil deGrasse Tyson quotes.

1. ON SCIENCE

"The good thing about science is that it's true whether or not you believe in it."
—From Real Time with Bill Maher.

2. ON NASA FUNDING

"As a fraction of your tax dollar today, what is the total cost of all spaceborne telescopes, planetary probes, the rovers on Mars, the International Space Station, the space shuttle, telescopes yet to orbit, and missions yet to fly?' Answer: one-half of one percent of each tax dollar. Half a penny. I’d prefer it were more: perhaps two cents on the dollar. Even during the storied Apollo era, peak NASA spending amounted to little more than four cents on the tax dollar." 
—From Space Chronicles

3. ON GOD AND HURRICANES

"Once upon a time, people identified the god Neptune as the source of storms at sea. Today we call these storms hurricanes ... The only people who still call hurricanes acts of God are the people who write insurance forms."
—From Death by Black Hole

4. ON THE BENEFITS OF TECHNOLOGY INVENTED FOR USE IN SPACE

"Countless women are alive today because of ideas stimulated by a design flaw in the Hubble Space Telescope." (Editor's note: technology used to repair the Hubble Space Telescope's optical problems led to improved technology for breast cancer detection.)
—From Space Chronicles

5. ON THE DEMOTION OF PLUTO FROM PLANET STATUS 


PBS

"I knew Pluto was popular among elementary schoolkids, but I had no idea they would mobilize into a 'Save Pluto' campaign. I now have a drawer full of hate letters from hundreds of elementary schoolchildren (with supportive cover letters from their science teachers) pleading with me to reverse my stance on Pluto. The file includes a photograph of the entire third grade of a school posing on their front steps and holding up a banner proclaiming, 'Dr. Tyson—Pluto is a Planet!'"
—From The Sky Is Not the Limit

6. ON JAMES CAMERON'S TITANIC

"In [Titanic], the stars above the ship bear no correspondence to any constellations in a real sky. Worse yet, while the heroine bobs ... we are treated to her view of this Hollywood sky—one where the stars on the right half of the scene trace the mirror image of the stars in the left half. How lazy can you get?"
—From Death by Black Hole

7. ON DEATH BY ASTEROID

"On Friday the 13th, April 2029, an asteroid large enough to fill the Rose Bowl as though it were an egg cup will fly so close to Earth that it will dip below the altitude of our communication satellites. We did not name this asteroid Bambi. Instead, we named it Apophis, after the Egyptian god of darkness and death."
—From Space Chronicles

8. ON THE MOTIVATIONS BEHIND AMERICA'S MOONSHOT

"[L]et us not fool ourselves into thinking we went to the Moon because we are pioneers, or discoverers, or adventurers. We went to the Moon because it was the militaristically expedient thing to do."
—From The Sky Is Not the Limit

9. ON INTELLIGENT LIFE (OR THE LACK THEREOF)

Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/n/neildegras615117.html
Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/n/neildegras615117.html

"Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life."

10. PRACTICAL ADVICE IN THE EVENT OF ALIEN CONTACT 

A still from Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
Universal Studios

"[I]f an alien lands on your front lawn and extends an appendage as a gesture of greeting, before you get friendly, toss it an eightball. If the appendage explodes, then the alien was probably made of antimatter. If not, then you can proceed to take it to your leader."
—From Death by Black Hole

How Apple's '1984' Super Bowl Ad Was Almost Canceled

More than 30 years ago, Apple defined the Super Bowl commercial as a cultural phenomenon. Prior to Super Bowl XVIII, nobody watched the game "just for the commercials"—but one epic TV spot, directed by sci-fi legend Ridley Scott, changed all that. Read on for the inside story of the commercial that rocked the world of advertising, even though Apple's Board of Directors didn't want to run it at all.

THE AD

If you haven't seen it, here's a fuzzy YouTube version:

"WHY 1984 WON'T BE LIKE 1984"

The tagline "Why 1984 Won't Be Like '1984'" references George Orwell's 1949 novel 1984, which envisioned a dystopian future, controlled by a televised "Big Brother." The tagline was written by Brent Thomas and Steve Hayden of the ad firm Chiat\Day in 1982, and the pair tried to sell it to various companies (including Apple, for the Apple II computer) but were turned down repeatedly. When Steve Jobs heard the pitch in 1983, he was sold—he saw the Macintosh as a "revolutionary" product, and wanted advertising to match. Jobs saw IBM as Big Brother, and wanted to position Apple as the world's last chance to escape IBM's domination of the personal computer industry. The Mac was scheduled to launch in late January of 1984, a week after the Super Bowl. IBM already held the nickname "Big Blue," so the parallels, at least to Jobs, were too delicious to miss.

Thomas and Hayden wrote up the story of the ad: we see a world of mind-controlled, shuffling men all in gray, staring at a video screen showing the face of Big Brother droning on about "information purification directives." A lone woman clad in vibrant red shorts and a white tank-top (bearing a Mac logo) runs from riot police, dashing up an aisle towards Big Brother. Just before being snatched by the police, she flings a sledgehammer at Big Brother's screen, smashing him just after he intones "We shall prevail!" Big Brother's destruction frees the minds of the throng, who quite literally see the light, flooding their faces now that the screen is gone. A mere eight seconds before the one-minute ad concludes, a narrator briefly mentions the word "Macintosh," in a restatement of that original tagline: "On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you'll see why 1984 won't be like '1984.'" An Apple logo is shown, and then we're out—back to the game.

In 1983, in a presentation about the Mac, Jobs introduced the ad to a cheering audience of Apple employees:

"... It is now 1984. It appears IBM wants it all. Apple is perceived to be the only hope to offer IBM a run for its money. Dealers, initially welcoming IBM with open arms, now fear an IBM-dominated and -controlled future. They are increasingly turning back to Apple as the only force that can ensure their future freedom. IBM wants it all and is aiming its guns on its last obstacle to industry control: Apple. Will Big Blue dominate the entire computer industry? The entire information age? Was George Orwell right about 1984?"

After seeing the ad for the first time, the Apple audience totally freaked out (jump to about the 5-minute mark to witness the riotous cheering).

SKINHEADS, A DISCUS THROWER, AND A SCI-FI DIRECTOR

Chiat\Day hired Ridley Scott, whose 1982 sci-fi film Blade Runner had the dystopian tone they were looking for (and Alien wasn't so bad either). Scott filmed the ad in London, using actual skinheads playing the mute bald men—they were paid $125 a day to sit and stare at Big Brother; those who still had hair were paid to shave their heads for the shoot. Anya Major, a discus thrower and actress, was cast as the woman with the sledgehammer largely because she was actually capable of wielding the thing.

Mac programmer Andy Hertzfeld wrote an Apple II program "to flash impressive looking numbers and graphs on [Big Brother's] screen," but it's unclear whether his program was used for the final film. The ad cost a shocking $900,000 to film, plus Apple booked two premium slots during the Super Bowl to air it—carrying an airtime cost of more than $1 million.

WHAT EXECUTIVES AT APPLE THOUGHT

Although Jobs and his marketing team (plus the assembled throng at his 1983 internal presentation) loved the ad, Apple's Board of Directors hated it. After seeing the ad for the first time, board member Mike Markkula suggested that Chiat\Day be fired, and the remainder of the board were similarly unimpressed. Then-CEO John Sculley recalled the reaction after the ad was screened for the group: "The others just looked at each other, dazed expressions on their faces ... Most of them felt it was the worst commercial they had ever seen. Not a single outside board member liked it." Sculley instructed Chiat\Day to sell off the Super Bowl airtime they had purchased, but Chiat\Day principal Jay Chiat quietly resisted. Chiat had purchased two slots—a 60-second slot in the third quarter to show the full ad, plus a 30-second slot later on to repeat an edited-down version. Chiat sold only the 30-second slot and claimed it was too late to sell the longer one. By disobeying his client's instructions, Chiat cemented Apple's place in advertising history.

When Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak heard that the ad was in trouble, he offered to pony up half the airtime costs himself, saying, "I asked how much it was going to cost, and [Steve Jobs] told me $800,000. I said, 'Well, I'll pay half of it if you will.' I figured it was a problem with the company justifying the expenditure. I thought an ad that was so great a piece of science fiction should have its chance to be seen."

But Woz didn't have to shell out the money; the executive team finally decided to run a 100-day advertising extravaganza for the Mac's launch, starting with the Super Bowl ad—after all, they had already paid to shoot it and were stuck with the airtime.

1984 - Big Brother

WHAT EVERYBODY ELSE THOUGHT

When the ad aired, controversy erupted—viewers either loved or hated the ad, and it spurred a wave of media coverage that involved news shows replaying the ad as part of covering it, leading to estimates of an additional $5 million in "free" airtime for the ad. All three national networks, plus countless local markets, ran news stories about the ad. "1984" become a cultural event, and served as a blueprint for future Apple product launches. The marketing logic was brilliantly simple: create an ad campaign that sparked controversy (for example, by insinuating that IBM was like Big Brother), and the media will cover your launch for free, amplifying the message.

The full ad famously ran once during the Super Bowl XVIII (on January 22, 1984), but it also ran the month prior—on December 31, 1983, TV station operator Tom Frank ran the ad on KMVT at the last possible time slot before midnight, in order to qualify for 1983's advertising awards.* (Any awards the ad won would mean more media coverage.) Apple paid to screen the ad in movie theaters before movie trailers, further heightening anticipation for the Mac launch. In addition to all that, the 30-second version was aired across the country after its debut on the Super Bowl.

Chiat\Day adman Steve Hayden recalled: "We ran a 30- second version of '1984' in the top 10 U.S. markets, plus, in an admittedly childish move, in an 11th market—Boca Raton, Florida, headquarters for IBM's PC division." Mac team member Andy Hertzfeld ended his remembrance of the ad by saying:

"A week after the Macintosh launch, Apple held its January board meeting. The Macintosh executive staff was invited to attend, not knowing what to expect. When the Mac people entered the room, everyone on the board rose and gave them a standing ovation, acknowledging that they were wrong about the commercial and congratulating the team for pulling off a fantastic launch.

Chiat\Day wanted the commercial to qualify for upcoming advertising awards, so they ran it once at 1 AM at a small television station in Twin Falls, Idaho, KMVT, on December 15, 1983 [incorrect; see below for an update on this -ed]. And sure enough it won just about every possible award, including best commercial of the decade. Twenty years later it's considered one of the most memorable television commercials ever made."

THE AWFUL 1985 FOLLOW-UP

A year later, Apple again employed Chiat\Day to make a blockbuster ad for their Macintosh Office product line, which was basically a file server, networking gear, and a laser printer. Directed by Ridley Scott's brother Tony, the new ad was called "Lemmings," and featured blindfolded businesspeople whistling an out-of-tune version of Snow White's "Heigh-Ho" as they followed each other off a cliff (referencing the myth of lemming suicide).

Jobs and Sculley didn't like the ad, but Chiat\Day convinced them to run it, pointing out that the board hadn't liked the last ad either. But unlike the rousing, empowering message of the "1984" ad, "Lemmings" directly insulted business customers who had already bought IBM computers. It was also weirdly boring—when it was aired at the Super Bowl (with Jobs and Sculley in attendance), nobody really reacted. The ad was a flop, and Apple even proposed running a printed apology in The Wall Street Journal. Jay Chiat shot back, saying that if Apple apologized, Chiat would buy an ad on the next page, apologizing for the apology. It was a mess:

20-YEAR ANNIVERSARY

In 2004, the ad was updated for the launch of the iPod. The only change was that the woman with the hammer was now listening to an iPod, which remained clipped to her belt as she ran. You can watch that version too:

FURTHER READING

Chiat\Day adman Lee Clow gave an interview about the ad, covering some of this material.

Check out Mac team member Andy Hertzfeld's excellent first-person account of the ad. A similar account (but with more from Jobs's point of view) can found in the Steve Jobs biography, and an even more in-depth account is in The Mac Bathroom Reader. The Mac Bathroom Reader is out of print; you can read an excerpt online, including QuickTime movies of the two versions of the ad, plus a behind-the-scenes video. Finally, you might enjoy this 2004 USA Today article about the ad, pointing out that ads for other computers (including Atari, Radio Shack, and IBM's new PCjr) also ran during that Super Bowl.

* = A Note on the Airing in 1983

Update: Thanks to Tom Frank for writing in to correct my earlier mis-statement about the first air date of this commercial. As you can see in his comment below, Hertzfeld's comments above (and the dates cited in other accounts I've seen) are incorrect. Stay tuned for an upcoming interview with Frank, in which we discuss what it was like running both "1984" and "Lemmings" before they were on the Super Bowl!

Update 2: You can read the story behind this post in Chris's book The Blogger Abides.

This post originally appeared in 2012.

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