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Lucky Group of the Week

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Luck of the IrishEvery other week, we'll offer a special discount to a different group of flossers. If you don't qualify this time, don't worry a bit, because we'll most certainly get to you sooner or later. To kick things off, we're looking for people with Irish connections. Do you have ancestors from Dublin? Are you red-haired and freckle-faced? Do you use the word "wee" a lot? Does your last name begin with O'? Have you ever found a four-leaf clover? Is Lucky Charms your favorite cold cereal? (And if so, do you eat all the oat bits first and save the marshmallows for a huge sugar-buzz at the end of the bowl?)

If you answered "yes" to any of these questions, feel free to comment below and let us know what your connection is to the Eire. Then mosey on over to the mental_floss store and enjoy 10 percent off almost everything! (Only bundled items are excluded, and they're already offered at bargain prices.) Use the coupon code "luckoftheirish" to save, but hurry; this offer ends Sunday, March 22 at 11:59 PM Eastern.

Enjoy the Irish facts that follow... and may St. Patrick always be at your side!

Lucky Group of the Week: The Irish!

  • The average adult citizen of Ireland consumes more than three times his or her weight in tea every year, more than any other nation on Earth.
     
  • When John F. Kennedy was sworn in as president in 1961, he placed his hand on a 19th-century Bible that his ancestors brought with them when they immigrated from Ireland. Both his mother and father were direct descendants of Irish immigrants. JFK became the first president to officially visit Ireland in June 1963.
     
  • In 1972, "Give Ireland Back to the Irish" became the first single released by Paul McCartney's "new" band, Wings. The song naturally reached the top spot in Ireland, but was banned by all official U.K. radio outlets. Even still, the song broke into the British Top-20.
     
  • In August 2008, Irish mountain climber Gerard McDonnell became the poster boy for the phrase "fame is fleeting." He'd just become the first Irishman to scale K2, the world's second-tallest mountain. He was trapped and killed by an avalanche on his descent, just a few hours after reaching the summit.
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Opening Ceremony
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These $425 Jeans Can Turn Into Jorts
May 19, 2017
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Opening Ceremony

Modular clothing used to consist of something simple, like a reversible jacket. Today, it’s a $425 pair of detachable jeans.

Apparel retailer Opening Ceremony recently debuted a pair of “2 in 1 Y/Project” trousers that look fairly peculiar. The legs are held to the crotch by a pair of loops, creating a disjointed C-3PO effect. Undo the loops and you can now remove the legs entirely, leaving a pair of jean shorts in their wake. The result goes from this:

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Opening Ceremony

To this:

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Opening Ceremony

The company also offers a slightly different cut with button tabs in black for $460. If these aren’t audacious enough for you, the Y/Project line includes jumpsuits with removable legs and garter-equipped jeans.

[h/t Mashable]

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