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Museums of the Mundane

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We are obsessed with chronicling history—immortalizing the past behind glass in a bevy of beguiling museums. But while it makes sense that dinosaurs, mummies and Monet have become the bread and butter of curators across the globe, there are also plenty of museums that seek to show off stranger and much less enthralling fare.

In fact, a lot of museums out there seem downright mundane. You'd be surprised how much culture you're getting just by rolling out of bed:

7am Sunday morning. You drag yourself out of deep reverie and sit up in your bed.

Jiangnan Hundred-Bed Museum

Located in Wu Zhen, China, this museum is a 1200-square-foot snooze fest—literally. It houses dozens of beds from the Ming and Qing dynasties.

7:15am. You successfully extricate yourself from your sheets and stumble into the kitchen. You pop a prepackaged pastry into the toaster.

The Toaster Museum

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Compiled by the Toaster Museum Foundation, this eye-popping collection of more than 500 toasters currently resides at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan. They've got everything from pre-electric 19th century toasting forks to appliances designed by Michael Graves.

7:16am. You peel a banana.

The International Banana Club Museum

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Who knew that Altadena, California, was home to the world's largest collection of banana-related paraphernalia? With everything from "hard" items (their words, not mine), including an ancient petrified banana, to banana clothing, this place has a certain appeal. Be warned though, according to their Web site: "Nothing lude, crude or lucivious to do with bananas is accepted or displayed in this B.M."

Drat.

8am. Come on, dude, brush your teeth already! You fire up your electric toothbrush.

Toothbrush Museum

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Although it's only available online, this Swedish museum boasts more than 2,500 pictures of the dental tool. It's like every little anal-retentive child's dream come true.

9am. After thoroughly brushing, you decide to surf the web. So you fire up your computer.

Computer History Museum

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Appropriately situated in Silicon Valley, this monument to technology houses everything from the Babbage Engine to an exhibit on the history of computer chess.

11am. Your husband/wife/significant other/mother/father tells you to get off the computer and mow the lawn because the neighborhood association is complaining about your unruly grass length. You go to the garage and hunt for the lawnmower.

British Lawnmower Museum

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A museum entirely devoted to cutting grass, this place has the best tagline ever: "It's all you need to mow."

12pm. Mowing the lawn makes you feel ever so industrious. You decide to pay your bills. Being a fan of licking things, you have not yet switched to online billing. You break out the stamps.

Post Mark Museum and Research Library

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With over a million different postal items, this Ohio museum has the largest collection of mail-related items in the world. (Maybe that's where all my magazines went after I changed addresses"¦)

1pm. Inspired by this article, you decide to head out to a museum and get yourself some culture.

MuseumLink's Museum of Museums

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A work in progress, this Web site seeks to aggregate all the museums in the country (and Canada) in one place. Check it out next time you're in the mood to browse everything from mummies and Monet to the utterly mundane.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
technology
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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iStock
Animals
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Scientists Think They Know How Whales Got So Big
May 24, 2017
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iStock

It can be difficult to understand how enormous the blue whale—the largest animal to ever exist—really is. The mammal can measure up to 105 feet long, have a tongue that can weigh as much as an elephant, and have a massive, golf cart–sized heart powering a 200-ton frame. But while the blue whale might currently be the Andre the Giant of the sea, it wasn’t always so imposing.

For the majority of the 30 million years that baleen whales (the blue whale is one) have occupied the Earth, the mammals usually topped off at roughly 30 feet in length. It wasn’t until about 3 million years ago that the clade of whales experienced an evolutionary growth spurt, tripling in size. And scientists haven’t had any concrete idea why, Wired reports.

A study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B might help change that. Researchers examined fossil records and studied phylogenetic models (evolutionary relationships) among baleen whales, and found some evidence that climate change may have been the catalyst for turning the large animals into behemoths.

As the ice ages wore on and oceans were receiving nutrient-rich runoff, the whales encountered an increasing number of krill—the small, shrimp-like creatures that provided a food source—resulting from upwelling waters. The more they ate, the more they grew, and their bodies adapted over time. Their mouths grew larger and their fat stores increased, helping them to fuel longer migrations to additional food-enriched areas. Today blue whales eat up to four tons of krill every day.

If climate change set the ancestors of the blue whale on the path to its enormous size today, the study invites the question of what it might do to them in the future. Changes in ocean currents or temperature could alter the amount of available nutrients to whales, cutting off their food supply. With demand for whale oil in the 1900s having already dented their numbers, scientists are hoping that further shifts in their oceanic ecosystem won’t relegate them to history.

[h/t Wired]

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