The famous Eiffel Tower was inaugurated 120 years ago this month. Even if you've never been there, you've no doubt seen the thing a million times "“ it's practically synonymous with Paris and France (to the chagrin of some, I'm sure). But what do you really know about it? Here are 10 bits of trivia to amaze your family and impress your friends. Or something like that. They probably aren't "essentials," exactly, but I like alliteration maybe more than I should.
1. When the lofty landmark was inaugurated in 1889, it was the tallest structure in the world. This only lasted until 1930, when the Chrysler Building shot past it by more than 60 feet. It's currently taller than the Chrysler Building, though, if you count the 79-foot antenna added to the top. This still makes it only the fifth-tallest building in France. 2. La Tour Eiffel looks like it's one uniform color, but that's only perspective. Since it's so tall, it takes three different shades of whatever the color is (right now it's a brownish-grey) to make it appear all one shade. The darkest shade is used on the bottom and the lightest on the top. It's recoated with 60-70 tons of paint every seven years to prevent it from rusting. 3. World-famous chef Alain Ducasse runs Jules Verne, the gourmet restaurant on the second level. 4. In 1912, an inventor testing out his coat-parachute died when he jumped from the first deck and his invention failed him. Whoops.
5. The French sabotaged the Eiffel Tower before they ceded it to the Nazis and Hitler during WWII: they disabled the elevators, making sure that Hitler would have to climb to the top if he wanted a fantastic view of Paris (and he did: he agreed that Paris was the most beautiful of all of the European cities). The elevators were repaired in 1944 and all Allied soldiers were given free trips to the top.
6. You'll find little Eiffel Towers all over the world, sometimes in the most baffling places.
You know about the ones in Las Vegas and Disney World, I'm sure, but replicas are also in Hangzhou, China; Shenzhen, China; Slobozia, Romania; Copenhagen, Denmark; Messinia, Greece; Varna, Bulgaria; and Aktau, Kazakhstan. These in addition to mini-Eiffels in the hundreds of towns in the U.S. named "Paris," of course.
7. Gustave Eiffel had 72 names engraved on the tower to represent some of the great French scientists, engineers and mathematicians of the day. You can find the whole list here.
8. Talk about an eyesore "“ from 1925-1934, CitroÃ«n used three of the four sides of the landmark as an advertising space. At tht time, it was the world's largest advertising ever. 9. Despite its great height, only one person died during the construction of the tower. 10. Thomas Edison visited the Eiffel Tower and was most impressed with it. He signed the guestbook, "To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison"
An urban legend about a videotape that kills its viewers seven days after they see it turns out to be true. To her increasing horror, reporter Rachel Keller (then-newcomer Naomi Watts) discovers this after her niece is one of four teenage victims, and is in a race against the clock to uncover the mystery behind the girl in the video before her and her son’s time is up.
Released 15 years ago, on October 18, 2002, The Ring began a trend of both remaking Japanese horror films in a big way, and giving you nightmares about creepy creatures crawling out of your television. Here are some facts about the film that you can feel free to pass along to anybody, guilt-free.
1. DREAMWORKS BOUGHT THE AMERICAN RIGHTS TO RINGU FOR $1 MILLION.
There were conflicting stories over how executive producer Roy Lee came to see the 1998 Japanese horror film Ringu, Hideo Nakata's adaptation of the 1991 novel Ring by Kôji Suzuki. Lee said two different friends gave him a copy of Ringu in January 2001, which he loved and immediately gave to DreamWorks executive Mark Sourian, who agreed to purchase the rights. But Lee’s close friend Mike Macari worked at Fine Line Features, which had an American remake of Ringu in development before January 2001. Macari said he showed Lee Ringu much earlier. Macari and Lee were both listed as executive producers for The Ring.
2. THE DIRECTOR FIRST SAW RINGU ON A POOR QUALITY VHS TAPE, WHICH ADDED TO ITS CREEPINESS.
Gore Verbinski had previously directed MouseHunt. He saidthe first time he "watched the original Ringu was on a VHS tape that was probably seven generations down. It was really poor quality, but actually that added to the mystique, especially when I realized that this was a movie about a videotape." Naomi Watts struggled to find a VHS copy of Ringu while shooting in the south of Wales. When she finally got a hold of one she watched it on a very small TV alone in her hotel room. "I remember being pretty freaked out," Watts said. "I just saw it the once, and that was enough to get me excited about doing it."
3. THE RING AND RINGU ARE ABOUT 50 PERCENT DIFFERENT.
Verbinski estimated that, for the American version, they "changed up to 50 percent of it. The basic premise is intact, the story is intact, the ghost story, the story of Samara, the child." Storylines involving the characters having ESP, a volcano, “dream logic,” and references to “brine and goblins” were taken out.
4. IT RAINED ALMOST EVERY DAY WHEN THEY FILMED IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON.
5. THE PRODUCTION DESIGNER WAS INFLUENCED BY ANDREW WYETH.
Artist Andrew Wyeth tended to use muted, somber earth tones in his work. "In Wyeth's work, the trees are always dormant, and the colors are muted earth tones," explained production designer Tom Duffield. "It's greys, it's browns, it's somber colors; it's ripped fabrics in the windows. His work has a haunting flavor that I felt would add to the mystique of this movie, so I latched on to it."
6. THERE WERE RINGS EVERYWHERE.
The carpeting and wallpaper patterns, the circular kitchen knobs, the doctor’s sweater design, Rachel’s apartment number, and more were purposely designed with the film's title in mind.
7. WATTS AND MARTIN HENDERSON HAD A FRIENDLY INTERNATIONAL RIVALRY.
The New Zealand-born Henderson played Noah, Rachel’s ex-husband. Since Watts is from Australia, Henderson said that, "Between takes, we'd joke around with each other's accents and play into the whole New Zealand-Australia rivalry."
8. THE TWO WEREN’T SURE IF THE MOVIE WAS GOING TO BE SCARY ENOUGH.
After shooting some of the scenes, and not having the benefit of seeing what they'd look like once any special effects were added, Henderson and Watts worried that the final result would not be scary enough. "There were moments when Naomi and I would look at each other and say, 'This is embarrassing, people are going to laugh,'" Henderson told the BBC." You just hope that somebody makes it scary or you're going to look like an idiot!"
9. CHRIS COOPER WAS CUT FROM THE MOVIE.
Cooper played a child murderer in two scenes which were initially meant to bookend the film. He unconvincingly claimed to Rachel that he found God in the beginning, and in the end she gave him the cursed tape. Audiences at test screenings were distracted that an actor they recognized disappears for most of the film, so he was cut out entirely.
10. THEY TRIED TO GET RID OF ALL OF THE SHADOWS.
Verbinski and cinematographer Bojan Bazelli used the lack of sunlight in Washington to remove the characters’ shadows. The two wanted to keep the characters feeling as if “they’re floating a little bit, in space.”
11. THE TREE WAS NICKNAMED "LUCILLE."
The red Japanese maple tree in the cursed video was named after the famous redheaded actress Lucille Ball. The tree was fake, built out of steel tubing and plaster. The Washington wind blew it over three different times. The night they put up the tree in Los Angeles, the wind blew at 60 miles per hour and knocked Lucille over yet again. "It was very strange," said Duffield.
Moesko Island Lighthouse is Yaquina Head Lighthouse, at the mouth of the Yaquina River, a mile west of Agate Beach, Oregon. The website Rachel checks, MoeskoIslandLighthouse.com, used to actually exist as a one-page website, which gave general information on the fictional place. You can read it here.
13. A WEBSITE WAS CREATED BY DREAMWORKS TO PROMOTE THE MOVIE AND ADD TO ITS MYTHOLOGY.
Before and during the theatrical release, if you logged into AnOpenLetter.com, you could read a message in white lettering against a black background warning about what happens if you watch the cursed video (you can read it here). By November 24, 2002, it was a standard official website made for the movie, set up by DreamWorks.
14. VERBINSKI DIDN’T HAVE FUN DIRECTING THE MOVIE.
“It’s no fun making a horror film," admitted Verbinski. "You get into some darker areas of the brain and after a while everything becomes a bit depressing.”
This isn’t just any image of Africa. It represents the first of its kind: a high-resolution map of the different types of land cover that are found on the continent, released by The European Space Agency, as Travel + Leisure reports.
Land cover maps depict the different physical materials that cover the Earth, whether that material is vegetation, wetlands, concrete, or sand. They can be used to track the growth of cities, assess flooding, keep tabs on environmental issues like deforestation or desertification, and more.
The newly released land cover map of Africa shows the continent at an extremely detailed resolution. Each pixel represents just 65.6 feet (20 meters) on the ground. It’s designed to help researchers model the extent of climate change across Africa, study biodiversity and natural resources, and see how land use is changing, among other applications.
Developed as part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Land Cover project, the space agency gathered a full year’s worth of data from its Sentinel-2A satellite to create the map. In total, the image is made from 90 terabytes of data—180,000 images—taken between December 2015 and December 2016.
The map is so large and detailed that the space agency created its own online viewer for it. You can dive further into the image here.
And keep watch: A better map might be close at hand. In March, the ESA launched the Sentinal-2B satellite, which it says will make a global map at a 32.8 feet-per-pixel (10 meters) resolution possible.