When the Interior Department decided a few months ago to allow loaded, concealed weapons into national parks, heat-packin' groups like the Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms hailed the decision as a victory for public safety. They cited, among other things, "the inability of park officials to provide adequate law enforcement services" due to slim budgets and staff.Â But our trigger-happy pals might not be giving the Boys in Green enough credit. Where law enforcement is concerned, national park rangers have historically displayed a consistent knack for doing more with less. Check out these four examples.
1. Poachers Do the Walk of Shame
Back in the 1880s, poachers roamed Yellowstone like it was their own personal shooting gallery. Because the National Park Service wasn't formed until 1916, a ragtag company of U.S. Cavalrymen served as the park's first rangers. Unfortunately, they lacked the legal authority to punish poachers in any real way other than booting them from the park and temporarily seizing their gear. So in order to give their rule some teeth, soldiers got creative with logistics. After marching ornery hide hunters to Yellowstone's south entrance, rangers let the poachers know they could retrieve their sleep roll, gun, and supplies from the desk at park headquarters . . . seventy-five wilderness miles away at the park's north entrance!
Of course, that wasn't the only time early rangers relied on the technique. They resorted to similar measures when Basque shepherds were caught illegally grazing on park lands. While the hapless sheepherders got kicked out via the park's north gate, their sheep were graciously escorted east.
2. Smoking Out the Squatters
When Congress formally chartered Great Smoky Mountains National Park in 1934, the crown jewel of the Eastern parks wasn't exactly a pristine wilderness — in fact, there were still a few hundred people living in it. While many Appalachian residents had accepted buyouts in the years leading up to the park's formation, others were too poor or too stubborn to relocate. What's more, the hundreds of empty cabins tucked away inside the park lured hordes of Depression-era squatters. Park rangers made a mission of evicting the unwelcome guests, but when the wily mountaineers wouldn't stay ejected, they simply began burning down any abandoned or temporarily vacated cabins. Not entirely without empathy, the park's first superintendent J. Ross Eakin noted that preventing squatters by torching ancestral homesteads tended to raise "considerable ire among residents."
3. Strong-arming the Kolorado Klan
In the mid-1920s, Colorado was a bastion of influence for the Ku Klux Klan-- a state where the governor, the mayor of Denver, and U.S. Senator Rice Means all openly accepted Klan support. After Senator Means made a publicity tour through southwestern Colorado's Mesa Verde National Park in 1926, local Klansmen sought to convince park superintendent Jesse Nusbaum to grab a white sheet and join the club. When he declined, the Klan showed up with plans to hold a torchlight parade in front of one of the park's most recognized Anasazi ruins. The upright Nusbaum told the Klan they weren't wanted in Mesa Verde, and to show that he meant business, visibly armed the small park staff with pick-ax handles and other improvised weapons. The Klansmen got the message and left the park without incident.
4. Taking Out Snowmobiles, Execution-style
Glacier National Park ranger Art Sedlack was getting pretty fed-up with snowmobilers cutting through the park along a snow-smothered stretch of Montana's Highway 2. He was pretty clear about this point when he apprehended four sledders one night in December of 1974, warning them not to return by the same route unless they wanted a ticket. When he heard the whine of approaching snowmobiles an hour later, Sedlack hopped on his 4x4 and chased down the repeat offenders. Fearing they'd try to bolt, he reached in to yank out the one of the lead vehicle's spark plugs, but when it proved tricky to remove, he opted to improvise. Drawing his park-issued .38 caliber pistol, Sedlack fired point-blank into the snowmobiles' still-cooling engine.Â Man 1, machine 0.
The trespassers paid $25 fines, and Sedlack got a stern reprimand, along with the secret admiration of every ranger who's ever wanted to go Scarface on an exhaust-spewing snowmobile. For years, the Montana Wilderness Association even issued a "Sedlack Award" for creativity in defense of public lands.
It's probably best that we don't think too much about the Earth. After all, it's a tiny orb spinning more than 1000 mph at the equator while simultaneously zipping through space at 67,000 miles per hour. It circles a mysterious, 10,000°F fusion reactor that's more than 100 times its size, and spends most of its orbit narrowly (in a cosmic sense) avoiding collisions with giant chunks of rock that could practically wipe its surface clean. But if you're feeling brave, here are a few things you might not know about Earth. Mental Floss spoke to Josh Willis, a climate scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, about the planet we call home.
1. EARTH, BY THE NUMBERS.
The Earth orbits the Sun at approximately 93 million miles. As you probably know, at this distance it takes one year for the Earth to complete a revolution, and 24 hours to complete one rotation. The surface of the Earth has temperatures ranging from -126°F to 136°F. The planet is about 7900 miles in diameter (though the deepest we've ever drilled is 7.6 miles). There are 332,519,000 cubic miles of water on the planet, which is enough that, if the water broke from the Earth and organized itself into a sphere, it would have a diameter of 860 miles—about 40 percent that of the Moon.
2. SEEING IS BELIEVING.
The first photograph of Earth from space was taken in 1946. It's a grainy, black-and-white shot of a tiny slice of our world, curved with the ink of space as a backdrop. In 1960, weather satellites began sending photographs back to Earth, images that were still hideously deformed but scientifically valuable, especially for meteorologists, who now had stunning views of cloud systems from which to work. NASA's ATS-III satellite in 1967 returned the first color images of the full Earth. Now at last, we could see our living world, ringed in space and wrapped in billowing clouds.
On Christmas Eve, 1968, Apollo 8 astronaut William Anders sent back "Earthrise," a now-iconic photograph of a fragile cerulean orb rising over the lunar surface. But the most famous photograph of the Earth, by far, was taken about four years later, on December 7, 1972: the "Blue Marble." You've probably seen it countless times, enough that when you think of the Earth, that's what you think of. You may be less familiar with how astronaut Harrison Schmitt described the sight to Mission Control: "I'll tell you, if there ever was a fragile-appearing piece of blue in space, it's the Earth right now."
3. WE HAVE A NATURAL SATELLITE.
The Earth is the first planet, moving outward from the Sun, that possesses a moon. We call our moon "The Moon" (which will be a real headache centuries from now, when we've colonized the solar system). Every 27.32 days, the Moon completes an orbit of the Earth, which is why it has phases. When the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon, we see the Moon in full illumination (a round orb). As it circles the Earth, less and less of its visible surface is illuminated, until at last the Moon is between the Sun and the Earth. At that point, the "far side" of the Moon is in full illumination, and from our perspective, the Moon is receiving no light at all. The cycle then repeats itself, with more of its disc being illuminated as the month elapses, until it is again full. Because the length of the Moon's orbit is just shy of a month, every so often a month (which, itself, derives from the word "moon") has two full Moons, the second of which is colloquially called a Blue Moon.
The moon does spin, but in synchronous rotation with the Earth. In other words, it spins at the same speed as its orbit. As a result, the Earth only ever gets to see one side of our only natural satellite. The best guess for the origin of the Moon involves an object the size of Mars smashing into the Earth 4.5 billion years ago, sending debris into space. This debris organized itself into a molten form of the alabaster orb we know and love. Within 100 million years, an early crust had begun to form. Today, the Moon influences the tides of the ocean and eases our axial wobble, keeping things (more or less) nice and stable—a perfect condition for life.
4. LIFE FINDS A WAY …
When it comes to life, there are a lot of maybes in the solar system. Maybe Mars supported life billions of years ago. Maybe Europa is teeming with life today. The problem is that there is no evidence anywhere of anything that wiggles, walks, or swims … except for one place. Earth is the only body in the universe known to harbor life. And it has been tough going! Four billion years ago, the Earth's surface was sterilized during the Late Heavy Bombardment, when asteroids pilloried the inner solar system. To get some idea of what things must have been like during the LHB, look at the Moon. Most of its craters were formed during that time. Life survived on Earth in large part thanks to the hydrothermal vents at the bottom of the ocean.
There have been five mass extinctions on Earth, the worst of which (the Permian-Triassic, or "P-T Event") was 250 million years ago, wiping out 96 percent of sea species and nearly three-quarters of land vertebrates. Sixty-six million years ago, the Chicxulub impact wiped out 75 percent of all life, and ended the reign of the dinosaurs. Things recovered nicely, though, and today, biologists think there are 8.7 million species of life on Earth. That's not bad considering the universe's apparent hostility to life, and makes what we have going here all the more special and worth preserving. And we'd better get on it: Many scientists argue that we're in the midst of a sixth mass extinction—and we can only partially blame it on cats.
5. … BUT WE'RE DOING A POOR JOB OF PRESERVING IT.
"Global warming is real, it's caused by people, and it's a big problem," Willis told Mental Floss. "Every year the impacts of human-caused climate change get bigger and bigger, and are felt more and more across the planet." We feel the effects of climate change today, but the worst is yet to come, both in terms of economic and social disruption. "Right now we have a choice about what kind of planet we want to have in the future. And the choice is: Do we want to continue to burn fossil fuels and heat up the Earth, or do we want to try and stabilize our climate and keep it more or less like we've had it for the last 10,000 years?"
6. THE WATER IS RISING.
Carl Sagan once observed that, to scale, the Earth's atmosphere is about as thick as the gloss coating on a globe. Our oceans, meanwhile, make Earth the only known planet with stable water at its surface. (Icy moons like Europa and Enceladus have subsurface oceans of liquid water, and Titan, in addition to a possible subsurface ocean of water, has vast lakes of liquid methane covering its surface.)
The problem is, we're causing those water levels to rise. NASA's Jason-3 spacecraft measures the height of the ocean with 1-inch accuracy. Every 10 days, it collects data on the entire ocean, revealing details about such things as ocean currents and how they change, tilts in the ocean's surface, and the average volume of the ocean. "The oceans are growing for two reasons," says Willis. "One is because they absorb heat trapped by the greenhouse gases, and the other is that the ice in places like Greenland and Antarctica and tiny glaciers all across the planet are all melting and adding extra water to the oceans. And so this satellite measures these things combined, and in a way it's really taking the pulse of our planet."
A decade ago, the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica were thought of as stable. They are the last remaining ice sheets that cover huge land masses, and today they are disappearing. In 50 years, their melting will be the dominant source of global sea level rise. "Every time a big discovery is made," says Willis, "it seems like the picture is worse than we thought it was. The possibility for really rapid ice loss and rapid sea level rise is greater than we thought."
7. THERE MAY BE ANSWERS UNDERWATER.
The oceans remain a giant unknown for scientists. Knowing more about them would answer many of our questions about life and the life of the Earth. "Two-thirds of the planet is covered with water, and you can't see through it. And you can't shoot microwaves through it, and radio waves, and all the other kinds of things that we use even to measure other planets," Willis says. "If you probe the ocean, there are still a lot of big mysteries down there."
To understand how oceans really work would explain, for example, where the heat from global warming is going. Though the oceans absorb 95 percent of the heat trapped by greenhouse gases, it's still a mystery where that heat energy actually goes. Similar questions exist as to how the oceans interact with ice sheets.
Considering the stakes, it seems like an intense study of the Earth and its oceans is in order. And yet the same people who claim there isn't enough evidence to explain climate change want to slash the budgets of missions designed to find the requested evidence. Among the missions set to be killed are the PACE satellite, over a decade in development and designed to study the interaction of the ocean and the atmosphere, and the CLARREO pathfinder mission, which would cut the time necessary to predict climate change in half. (An extra 20 years to prepare for climate change would save the world $10 trillion.)
8. THERE IS STILL HOPE FOR OUR PALE BLUE DOT.
But it will take a concerted effort to change our behavior—before it's too late. "We think of global warming as something that happens in our cities, and it is happening there, but really 95 percent of the heat that's being trapped is going in the oceans. And I don't think people realize that. It just seems like, well, we're getting the brunt of global warming here in Los Angeles—but that's not true, really. It's the sea life and the oceans that are getting the brunt of the change," says Willis.
"One thing we should keep in mind is that all hope is not lost," he continues. "We are beginning to see changes in our economy, we're beginning to see the growth of renewable energy, and the strong desire to move to a fuel source that doesn't cook us, and I think that's a good thing. A lot of it happens at local and state levels now, but it's beginning to have an impact for real around the world."
One of the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency is imposing limits on the amount of harmful chemicals allowed in tap water. But sometimes these regulations aren't enough: In many of parts of the country, Americans are drinking water that passes the legal test but could still pose a threat to their health. Fortunately, checking local water contamination levels is easy for anyone with web access.
As Fast Company reports, the Tap Water Database from the Environmental Working Group, a nonprofit, non-partisan environmental health organization, provides the public with water-quality information on 50,000 utilities around the country. Visitors to the website can search for their local water facilities by state or zip code. Once they find those, they're directed to a list of chemicals that exceed the limits set by health professionals. Common contaminants like chloroform, nitrates, and trichloroacetic acid increase the drinker's risk of cancer if they're exposed to them over extended periods. Each report also includes chemicals that are present in the water supply but conform to the recommended health guidelines.
The tool is the only comprehensive and fully accessible database of its kind. Earlier in 2017, the website was updated for the first time in eight years with information collected from 2010 to 2015. But even if the data is a couple of years old, the resource is valuable to people who rely on their local utility for drinking water. This is especially true for people living in low-income neighborhoods where contamination levels tend to be highest.
Identifying the unwanted chemicals in your water can also help you get smart about purifying it at home. Different home purifiers are built to filter out different chemicals, which makes understanding the quality of your tap water before purchasing one essential. Here's our guide to picking the best water filter for your home.