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Dietribes: Death by Chocolate

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This post is dedicated to all my fellow chocoholic Flossers, who might dare strive to drink 50 cups of chocolate a day as Montezuma, the Aztec king, was said to do. Or just anyone who likes to have a little cocoa here and there. Happy Valentine's Day!

"¢ There are, of course, several varieties of chocolate ranging from milk to very dark. So-called "white chocolate" (can you sense my chocolate snobbery?) isn't chocolate in the technical sense, since it's comprised of cocoa butter, sugar and milk, but no actual cocoa solids.

"¢ Finding just the right consistency that "melts in your mouth and not in your hand" can be difficult. The melting point of cocoa butter is just below the human body temperature -- explaining why it literally melts in your mouth.

"¢ Legend has it that Forrest Mars, Senior met soldiers in the Spanish Civil war eating chocolates covered in a hard shell that prevented them from melting. The inspiration paid off, and M&Ms became a popular snack for soldiers in WWII.

"¢ Besides being a delicious and occasionally decadent treat, chocolate has plenty of other values. It can fuel a car, be used as fake blood (like in the shower scene in Psycho), work as a band-aid (er, sorta), and possibly even help stop global warming. Did I also mention certain varieties have been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease and helped aid in the invention of the microwave?

"¢ Though Richard Cadbury came up with the first heart shaped box in the 1860s, and much of Valentine's day is about the familiar heart symbol since, some may prefer a chocolate heart that's a bit more ... anatomically correct.

"¢ More evidence of the impending Robot Revolution, and the kind of candies they will enjoy: Mars, IBM, and the Department of Agriculture have teamed up to sequence and analyze the entire cocoa genome in the hopes of unleashing a stronger, disease-resistant, genetically superior coca plant!

"¢ If you simply can't get enough chocolate, visit "Chocolate Covered February" in Hershey, PA. But make sure your trip includes the Hotel Hershey Chocolate Spa "“ whipped cocoa bath, choice of a chocolate bean polish or Chocolate Sugar Scrub, and 50-minute Cocoa Massage and lunch. No matter how much you love chocolate though, you still might not want to get stuck in a vat of it.

"¢ Those of you in the Boston area may need to consume some chocolate in order to activate your serotonin levels, because a tax on sweets might be coming - watch out!

***

What are some of your favorite kinds of chocolate, Flossers? Any that you despise? I'm a dark chocolate girl myself - at least 60% cocoa for me to even find it worthy of consumption!

Hungry for more? Venture into the Dietribes archive.

"˜Dietribes' appears every other Wednesday. Food photos taken by Johanna Beyenbach. You might remember that name from our post about her colorful diet.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Nick Briggs/Comic Relief
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What Happened to Jamie and Aurelia From Love Actually?
May 26, 2017
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Nick Briggs/Comic Relief

Fans of the romantic-comedy Love Actually recently got a bonus reunion in the form of Red Nose Day Actually, a short charity special that gave audiences a peek at where their favorite characters ended up almost 15 years later.

One of the most improbable pairings from the original film was between Jamie (Colin Firth) and Aurelia (Lúcia Moniz), who fell in love despite almost no shared vocabulary. Jamie is English, and Aurelia is Portuguese, and they know just enough of each other’s native tongues for Jamie to propose and Aurelia to accept.

A decade and a half on, they have both improved their knowledge of each other’s languages—if not perfectly, in Jamie’s case. But apparently, their love is much stronger than his grasp on Portuguese grammar, because they’ve got three bilingual kids and another on the way. (And still enjoy having important romantic moments in the car.)

In 2015, Love Actually script editor Emma Freud revealed via Twitter what happened between Karen and Harry (Emma Thompson and Alan Rickman, who passed away last year). Most of the other couples get happy endings in the short—even if Hugh Grant's character hasn't gotten any better at dancing.

[h/t TV Guide]

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