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Angels of Death: 7 More Medical Murderers

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In part one of Angels of Death, you saw the stories of eight medical professionals who killed their patients. That's just scratching the surface of the many cases of medical murders. Here are seven more.

Nightmare Nurse

Jane Toppan admitted to first eleven murders, then later to 31. Despite recklessness with drugs, unusually high patient deaths, and charges of theft, she managed to find employment over and over again in Massachusetts between the years of 1885 and 1901. In 1901, Toppan moved in with the Davis family after the death of the elderly mother she had cared for. Within a short time, the father and two daughters were dead. She also killed her foster sister before an investigation, which found the victims to be poisoned, led to her arrest. Toppan was found not guilty by reason of insanity, and was held in a mental institution for the rest of her life. Toppan was said to have been proud of the killings.

The Angel of Death

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Two of the people profiled here are very different from the rest in that they did not hide their actions at the time. One was Joseph Mengele, who had free rein under the SS to conduct experiments on inmates at Auschwitz. The doctor was also largely responsible for selecting prisoners for the gas chambers. Mengele had a special interest in twins. Thousands of twins were subjected to horrific surgical procedures and injections. Only a few survived World War II. Mengele also "experimented" with electric shock, castration, radiation, and removal of limbs and organs without anesthetic on manner of prisoners. Mengele escaped to Argentina after the war under a false identity. The records he kept on his experiments were destroyed by a colleague. Mengele died in 1979 in Brazil. A grave was exhumed in 1985 and DNA tests in 1992 confirmed that it was Mengele's.

The Job-hopping Nurse

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Charles Cullen worked as a nurse at ten different hospitals in New Jersey and Pennsylvania and admitted killing 45 patients between 1988 and 2003. He administered overdoses of drugs (usually digoxin) by injection or through intravenous lines. He was fired from job after job for erratic behavior, incompetence, or breaking rules, but Cullen continued to find work because of a nationwide nurse shortage. Suspicious deaths at Somerset Medical Center in New Jersey finally led authorities to look into Cullen's background. He was arrested for one murder and one attempted murder in 2003. He later confessed and pled guilty to the charges. In later investigations, Cullen pled guilty to 13 murders at Somerset and three more at other hospitals in New Jersey. He also pled guilty to killing six patients in Pennsylvania. Cullen is serving 18 life sentences and will be eligible for parole in 395 years. The nurse explained that he killed because he couldn't stand to see his patients suffer, although he seemed unaware that in many cases, he caused their suffering. As a result of the Cullen case, most states adopted laws that provided legal immunity to employers who give poor performance ratings or referrals to medical professionals.

Dr. Death

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There are many who would not consider Jack Kevorkian a murderer, but he was convicted and served eight years in prison for second-degree homicide. Kevorkian was an activist who published and spoke on the ethics of euthanasia. He pushed the idea that terminally ill patients and even those with a limited quality of life, should have the right to commit suicide, even those who are not physically able to do so. Kevorkian developed at least two devices that allowed patients to deliver their own death with a simple push of a button. The doctor, whose license was revoked in 1991, says he assisted in over 100 suicides. He was arrested numerous times, but wasn't convicted until 1998 because the patient had made the ultimate move in each death. However, Thomas Youk was completely paralyzed due to ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), so Kevorkian, with the patient's permission, administered a lethal injection. The event was videotaped and shown on the TV show 60 Minutes in 1998, which led to murder charges for Kevorkian. He was denied parole until 2006, when he finally promised not to involve himself in any more suicides. At the time, Kevorkian was expected to die of Hepatitis C within a year. However, he was healthy enough to run for a Michigan congressional seat in 2008. He did not win the election.

The Veteran Murderer

220_gilbert.jpgWhen nurse Kristen Gilbert moved to the evening shift at the VA Hospital in Northampton, massachusetts, the death rate tripled. Other nurses noticed patients dying of cardiac arrest when there was no history of heart trouble. They also noticed epinephrine, a drug that can cause heart attacks, sometimes went missing. And they noticed Gilbert's affair with security guard James Perrault, who was always called when an emergency arose on the ward. It was thought that the nurse would induce a heart attack solely for the opportunity to summon her lover to the scene. Authorities investigated in 1996, Gilbert was suspended, and the death rate immediately dropped to normal levels. Perrault broke off the affair, and Gilbert tried to kill herself. She landed in a psychiatric ward, where she admitted to  Perrault that she killed patients. Her former lover then aided the investigation against her. Gilbert called in a bomb threat to the hospital, asking to speak to Perrault. She was arrested for the act, and later charged with four counts of murder and two counts of attempted murder. She was convicted in 2001 and sentenced to life in prison.

The Compassionate Killer

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Stephan Letter was convicted of murdering 16 patients and causing the death of 13 more, although the line between the two charges seems blurry. Letter was a nurse at a clinic for the elderly in Sonthofen, Bavaria, Germany. Police investigated around 80 suspicious deaths in 2003 and 2004. 43 victims were exhumed and another 38 had been cremated. The exhumations showed the patients had been killed by a lethal combination of drugs. Letter admitted killing twelve of the patients. The 27-year-old nurse told the court he had acted out of compassion for the dying. In 2006, he was found guilty of 29 murders and sentenced to life.

The Most Prolific Ever

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British physician Harold Shipman may have killed as many as 400 of his patients during his medical career, which would make him the most prolific serial killer of all time. An official audit estimates the number of victims at 236 over 24 years, but the exact number will probably never be known. Shipman was abusing drugs and forging prescriptions early in his career, but went on to treat patients in Hyde, Greater Manchester. Eventually, funeral directors and medical examiners were concerned about the number of deaths under Shipman's care, but an inquiry went nowhere because the doctor had changed medical records after the fact to explain that the patient had been ill. In reality, almost all the patients had been healthy just prior to death. After Kathleen Grundy died in 1998, a suspicious-looking will was produced that left £386,000 to Dr. Shipman. Mrs. Grundy was found to have died of an overdose of morphine. Police investigated the deaths of previous patients, and found many had died of overdoses. Mrs. Grundy's will was linked to Shipman's typewriter, and an examination of Shipman's computer revealed evidence of medical records that were amended after the deaths. He was convicted of 15 murders in 2000 and sentenced to life for each, plus four years for forgery. Shipman proclaimed his innocence until the day he hanged himself in prison in 2004.

Most of the entries in this post were people mentioned in the comments of the previous post on the subject. I have a long list of obscure medical murderers, so there may well be a third installment.

Update: Part three of this series is now available.

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science
2017 Ig Nobel Prizes Celebrate Research on How Crocodiles Affect Gambling and Other Odd Studies
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The Ig Nobel Prizes are back, and this year's winning selection of odd scientific research topics is as weird as ever. As The Guardian reports, the 27th annual awards of highly improbable studies "that first make people laugh, then make them think" were handed out on September 14 at a theater at Harvard University. The awards, sponsored by the Annals of Improbable Research, honor research you never would have thought someone would take the time (or the funding) to study, much less would be published.

The 2017 highlights include a study on whether cats can be both a liquid and a solid at the same time and one on whether the presence of a live crocodile can impact the behavior of gamblers. Below, we present the winners from each of the 10 categories, each weirder and more delightful than the last.

PHYSICS

"For using fluid dynamics to probe the question 'Can a Cat Be Both a Solid and a Liquid?'"

Winner: Marc-Antoine Fardin

Study: "On the Rheology of Cats," published in Rheology Bulletin [PDF]

ECONOMICS

"For their experiments to see how contact with a live crocodile affects a person's willingness to gamble."

Winners: Matthew J. Rockloff and Nancy Greer

Study: "Never Smile at a Crocodile: Betting on Electronic Gaming Machines is Intensified by Reptile-Induced Arousal," published in the Journal of Gambling Studies

ANATOMY

"For his medical research study 'Why Do Old Men Have Big Ears?'"

Winner: James A. Heathcote

Study: "Why Do Old Men Have Big Ears?" published in the BMJ

BIOLOGY

"For their discovery of a female penis, and a male vagina, in a cave insect."

Winners: Kazunori Yoshizawa, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Yoshitaka Kamimura, and Charles Lienhard (who delivered their acceptance speech via video from inside a cave)

Study: "Female Penis, Male Vagina and Their Correlated Evolution in a Cave Insect," published in Current Biology

FLUID DYNAMICS

"For studying the dynamics of liquid-sloshing, to learn what happens when a person walks backwards while carrying a cup of coffee."

Winner: Jiwon Han

Study: "A Study on the Coffee Spilling Phenomena in the Low Impulse Regime," published in Achievements in the Life Sciences

NUTRITION

"For the first scientific report of human blood in the diet of the hairy-legged vampire bat."

Winners: Fernanda Ito, Enrico Bernard, and Rodrigo A. Torres

Study: "What is for Dinner? First Report of Human Blood in the Diet of the Hairy-Legged Vampire Bat Diphylla ecaudata," published in Acta Chiropterologica

MEDICINE

"For using advanced brain-scanning technology to measure the extent to which some people are disgusted by cheese."

Winners: Jean-Pierre Royet, David Meunier, Nicolas Torquet, Anne-Marie Mouly, and Tao Jiang

Study: "The Neural Bases of Disgust for Cheese: An fMRI Study," published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

COGNITION

"For demonstrating that many identical twins cannot tell themselves apart visually."

Winners: Matteo Martini, Ilaria Bufalari, Maria Antonietta Stazi, and Salvatore Maria Aglioti

Study: "Is That Me or My Twin? Lack of Self-Face Recognition Advantage in Identical Twins," published in PLOS One

OBSTETRICS

"For showing that a developing human fetus responds more strongly to music that is played electromechanically inside the mother's vagina than to music that is played electromechanically on the mother's belly."

Winners: Marisa López-Teijón, Álex García-Faura, Alberto Prats-Galino, and Luis Pallarés Aniorte

Study: "Fetal Facial Expression in Response to Intravaginal Music Emission,” published in Ultrasound

PEACE PRIZE

"For demonstrating that regular playing of a didgeridoo is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea and snoring."

Winners: Milo A. Puhan, Alex Suarez, Christian Lo Cascio, Alfred Zahn, Markus Heitz, and Otto Braendli

Study: "Didgeridoo Playing as Alternative Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome: Randomised Controlled Trial," published by the BMJ

Congratulations, all.

[h/t The Guardian]

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Health
CDC Traces Infectious Disease Outbreak in Seven States to Pet-Store Puppies
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Campylobacter bacteria have infected 39 people in seven states, and puppies sold at one chain of pet stores in Ohio are likely to blame. As NPR reports, a federal investigation is currently underway as to the exact cause of the outbreak of the intestinal infection.

The symptoms of Campylobacter include fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and in rare cases it can lead to death in victims with weakened immune systems. About 1.3 million people fall ill to it each year, but the bacteria can also infect animals like dogs.

Of those hit by the latest outbreak, 12 are employees of the national chain Petland in four states, according to the CDC. The other 27 have either bought a puppy from a Petland store recently or live with or visited someone who has. Eighteen cases have been reported in Ohio, and the rest have appeared in Florida, Kansas, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Wisconsin. While no deaths have been reported, nine victims have been hospitalized.

Puppies, like humans babies, are more likely to get sick than full-grown dogs, which may explain how the Petland animals caught the illness in the first place. But even apparently healthy adult dogs may be harboring the bacteria and spreading it through their feces. To avoid catching it from your canine companion at home, the CDC recommends washing your hands whenever you make physical contact. This also applies when handling their food and especially when picking up and throwing away their poop (with disposable gloves of course).

For the small percentage of people who do contract the infection each year, the best course of action is to wait it out if you're healthy otherwise: Symptoms take about a week to clear up.

[h/t NPR]

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