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Two on the Twenty-Second

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Today's "Feel Art Again" takes a brief look at two influential but little-known artists who were born 130 years apart on this date, January 22.

The French painter Nicolas Lancret (1690-1743) is described as "Paris's best-known practitioner of the fête galante," a style of painting that focuses on the pursuits of the "idle, rich aristocrats" of the 18th century. Like many French painters, Lancret studied at the Académie Royale; unlike most other French painters, though, he was supposedly expelled for "bad behavior." However, his bad behavior didn't prevent him from later being an Académie Royale member, nor did it hinder his career. He had the "enthusiastic patronage" of Louis XV, who hung Lancret's paintings throughout the royal residences, including the famed Versailles.

Shown is Lancret's "Lady and Gentleman with two Girls and a Servant" (1742). Love his work? Check out more paintings by Lancret in the Web Gallery of Art.

JosephWolf.jpgJoseph Wolf (1820-1899), a German illustrator and painter, is recognized for establishing wildlife art as a genre. By the age of 20, Wolf had already illustrated books of African and Japanese birds. He was hired by the Zoological Society of London to make drawings for their publications. When two volumes of his zoological sketches were published "for the general reader," they apparently sold as well as Charles Dickens' novels. He was disappointed with the chromolithograph plates in one of his volumes (perhaps one of those two, though sources aren't clear on the matter) and, as a result, never again allowed his work to be used for anything other than scientific publications. He died in 1899 "surrounded by his pet birds."

Shown is Wolf's "A Pair of Doves amongst Honeysuckle; and Group of Pheasant Chicks in the Undergrowth" (1871). For more information on Wolf, read "The Life of Joseph Wolf: Animal Painter" by Alfred Herbert Palmer.

Don't forget to enter the first-ever "Feel Art Again" contest!

Design a Rube Goldberg device and submit it today, January 22, 2009, for a chance to win Secret Lives of Great Artists by Elizabeth Lunday. For full details, visit the contest page.

"Feel Art Again" appears every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. You can e-mail us at feelartagain@gmail.com artist suggestions, with details of current exhibitions, or for sources or further reading.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Name the Author Based on the Character
May 23, 2017
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