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11 Times the Doomsday Clock Time Has Been Adjusted

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Today, January 26, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists announced [PDF] that the Doomsday Clock would be set ahead 30 seconds. We now stand at 2 minutes and 30 seconds to midnight. It's the closest we've come to midnight since the 1950s. 

If you haven't heard of the Doomsday Clock, here's a brief and terrifying synopsis for you: It was created in 1947 at the University of Chicago as an easy analogy to show people how close we are to armageddon at any given moment. "Midnight" on the clock represents doomsday, and, obviously, the closer the hands are to midnight, the closer we are to total annihilation.

The group set the clock ahead 30 seconds for 2017 because in the past year, "the international community failed to come effectively to grips with humanity’s most pressing existential threats, nuclear weapons and climate change," it said in a statement. It also cited as causes for deep concern the dangerous proliferation of fake news—"trusted sources of information came under attack, fake news was on the rise, and words were used in cavalier and often reckless ways"—and potential threats from emerging technologies, especially sophisticated hacks that can wreak havoc on both power grids and electoral systems.

When it was first "set" in 1947, during the Cold War, we were at 11:53. Since then, it's been readjusted 22 times. Here are 11 of those adjustments and why they happened.

1. By 1953, the clock had lost five minutes, putting the time at 11:58. But there was good reason—it was the time period when the U.S. and the Soviet Union were testing nukes. So far, it's the closest we've ever been to midnight.

2. Ten years later, though, we had not only gained back those five, we had doubled it. The clock was at 11:48 thanks to increased studies and scientific understanding of nuclear weapons. And, in 1963, the U.S. and the Soviet Union signed the Partial Test Ban Treaty, which limited nuclear testing.

3. Although things were looking up regarding the Soviet Union, by 1968, France and China had developed nukes and we were embroiled in Vietnam. Mainly due to those events, we lost another five minutes, putting us at 11:53.

4. In the next three years, the Senate passed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. The three treaties equaled five minutes gained on the clock, putting us back at 11:48.

5. At least, until India tested a nuclear device in 1974 and we lost another three. The clock read 11:51.

6. By 1981, the U.S. and the USSR weren't as "friendly" as they were during the past treaties, and discussions had kind of stalled. The arms race was getting out of control, terrorists were becoming more active, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan had sharpened the division between the United States and the USSR. This resulted in a loss of six minutes, putting us closer to midnight than we had been since 1953.

7. But then things started to look up. By 1991, more treaties were signed, the Berlin Wall was torn down, the Iron Curtain fell. We gained a whopping 14 minutes, putting us at 11:43, the farthest we have ever been from midnight. Talk about a swing in events.

8. It didn't last long, though, and we've been losing ground ever since. In 1998, India and Pakistan both tested nuclear weapons. That combined with increased military spending throughout the world caused us to lose eight minutes, putting us back in the less-than-10-minute range, putting us at 11:51.

9. We still weren't gaining any ground in 2002. The U.S. rejected arms control treaties, probably because of 9/11, and announced they were withdrawing from the previously-signed Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. This resulted in a loss of two minutes; the clock read 11:53.

10. The clock lost two minutes in 2007 thanks to North Korea's nuke tests and the uncertainty of Iran's nuclear actions. Another two were lost in 2015 because the United States and Russia began modernizing their nuclear weapons programs—and the threat of climate change was added to the previous worries of nuclear destruction.

11. The 30-second move this year marks the first time the group has set the clock ahead less than a full minute. Why? They're deeply troubled by Donald Trump's "statements and actions" but acknowledge it's still early in his administration. They write, "He has made ill-considered comments about expanding the US nuclear arsenal. He has shown a troubling propensity to discount or outright reject expert advice related to international security, including the conclusions of intelligence experts. And his nominees to head the Energy Department and the Environmental Protection Agency dispute the basics of climate science. In short, even though he has just now taken office, the president’s intemperate statements, lack of openness to expert advice, and questionable cabinet nominations have already made a bad international security situation worse."

Editor's note: This story, which first ran in 2009, has been updated.

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A Simple Way to Charge Your iPhone in 5 Minutes
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Spotting the “low battery” notification on your phone is usually followed by a frantic search for an outlet and further stress over the fact that you may not have time for a full charge. On iPhones, plugging your device into the wall for five minutes might result in only a modest increase of about three percent or so. But this tip from Business Insider Tech may allow you to squeeze out a little more juice.

The trick? Before charging, put your phone in Airplane Mode so that you reduce the number of energy-sucking tasks (signal searching, fielding incoming communications) your device will try and perform.

Next, take the cover off if you have one (the phone might be generating extra heat as a result). Finally, try to use an iPad adapter, which has demonstrated a faster rate of charging than the adapter that comes with your iPhone.

Do that and you’ll likely double your battery boost, from about three to six percent. It may not sound like much, but that little bit of extra juice might keep you connected until you’re able to plug it in for a full charge.

[h/t Business Insider Tech]

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Trying to Save Money? Avoid Shopping on a Smartphone
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Today, Americans do most of their shopping online—but as anyone who’s indulged in late-night retail therapy likely knows, this convenience often can come with an added cost. Trying to curb expenses, but don't want to swear off the convenience of ordering groceries in your PJs? New research shows that shopping on a desktop computer instead of a mobile phone may help you avoid making foolish purchases, according to Co. Design. Ying Zhu, a marketing professor at the University of British Columbia-Okanagan, recently led a study to measure how touchscreen technology affects consumer behavior. Published in the Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, her research found that people are more likely to make more frivolous, impulsive purchases if they’re shopping on their phones than if they’re facing a computer monitor. Zhu, along with study co-author Jeffrey Meyer of Bowling Green State University, ran a series of lab experiments on student participants to observe how different electronic devices affected shoppers’ thinking styles and intentions. Their aim was to see if subjects' purchasing goals changed when it came to buying frivolous things, like chocolate or massages, or more practical things, like food or office supplies. In one experiment, participants were randomly assigned to use a desktop or a touchscreen. Then, they were presented with an offer to purchase either a frivolous item (a $50 restaurant certificate for $30) or a useful one (a $50 grocery certificate for $30). These subjects used a three-point scale to gauge how likely they were to purchase the offer, and they also evaluated how practical or frivolous each item was. (Participants rated the restaurant certificate to be more indulgent than the grocery certificate.) Sure enough, the researchers found that participants had "significantly higher" purchase intentions for hedonic (i.e. pleasurable) products when buying on touchscreens than on desktops, according to the study. On the flip side, participants had significantly higher purchase intentions for utilitarian (i.e. practical) products while using desktops instead of touchscreens. "The playful and fun nature of the touchscreen enhances consumers' favor of hedonic products; while the logical and functional nature of a desktop endorses the consumers' preference for utilitarian products," Zhu explains in a press release. The study also found that participants using touchscreen technology scored significantly higher on "experiential thinking" than subjects using desktop computers, whereas those with desktop computers demonstrated higher scores for rational thinking. “When you’re in an experiential thinking mode, [you crave] excitement, a different experience,” Zhu explained to Co. Design. “When you’re on the desktop, with all the work emails, that interface puts you into a rational thinking style. While you’re in a rational thinking style, when you assess a product, you’ll look for something with functionality and specific uses.” Zhu’s advice for consumers looking to conserve cash? Stow away the smartphone when you’re itching to splurge on a guilty pleasure. [h/t Fast Company]

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