8 Underappreciated Undefeated Seasons

Skaters compete during the Roller Derby Extreme.
Skaters compete during the Roller Derby Extreme.
Robert Cianflone, Getty Images

By now, you're probably aware that the Detroit Lions just completed a "perfect" 0-16 season. Rather than kick the team when they're down, let's instead celebrate some of history's underappreciated undefeated seasons.

1. 1948 Cleveland Browns

Coached by their namesake, Paul Brown, the Cleveland Browns were the model franchise of the All-American Football Conference. The Browns compiled a 52-4-3 and won all four titles during the league's existence, including a perfect season in 1948 that was capped by a 49-7 win over Buffalo. (Apparently the Bills' inability to win the big game wasn't just an early 90s fad.) The Browns' dominance actually helped contribute to the downfall of the AAFC, as the team was so good that Cleveland fans stopped coming to games.

An afterthought because: The NFL doesn't recognize the Browns' perfect season, or any other AAFC records.

If you remember nothing else, remember this: Fittingly, Cleveland's first AAFC game was against the franchise from the city associated with pro football perfection since 1973. The Browns stomped the Miami Seahawks, 44-0.

2. 2007 Bronx Gridlock

The Queens of Pain rolled into the City College gym seeking a third-straight Gotham Girls Roller Derby championship, but members of the Bronx Gridlock weren't about to let a royal pain get in the way of their quest for perfection. According to this incredibly detailed account of the game, the Gridlock held off a fierce rally, as the Queens of Pain made up 31 points in four jams. Ultimately, the loss of Greta Turbo, who fractured her tibia and fibula in practice, was too much for the Queens of Pain to overcome, and Beatrix Slaughter's 32 points carried the Bronx to victory. [Photo courtesy of Derby News Network.]

An afterthought because: For most people, jam is something you put on toast or do with a guitar.

If you remember nothing else, remember this: How physically brutal is roller derby? The Bronx Gridlock's perfect season consisted of exactly four bouts.

3. 1986 Texas Women's Basketball

Jody Conradt's Texas Longhorns completed the first perfect season in women's college basketball history with a 97-81 win over Cheryl Miller and Southern California in the championship game. The Longhorns also defeated Missouri, Oklahoma, Ole Miss, and Western Kentucky en route to the title in the 40-team tournament. Texas freshman Clarissa Davis was named the "Most Outstanding Player" after registering 56 points and 32 rebounds in two Final Four games.

An afterthought because: In addition to the fact that women's basketball had even fewer casual fans at the time, Geno Auriemma's UConn Huskies have attained perfection two times within the last 13 years.

If you remember nothing else, remember this: Clarissa Davis, who later became Clarissa Davis-Wrightsil, was ejected from the inaugural American Basketball League all-star game in 1996 for punching Cindy Brown.

4. 1939 LIU Brooklyn Men's Basketball

Legendary head coach Clair Bee led the Long Island University Blackbirds "“ or Busy Bees, as they were more often called "“ to a 31-0 record in 1939. LIU capped its perfect season with a win over Loyola of Chicago in the championship game of the NIT, which was then the premier college basketball postseason tournament. After LIU cruised to yet another win at Madison Square Garden midway through the season, Arthur J. Daley wrote in The New York Times, "The last lingering doubts about the sheer class of the Long Island University basketball team fled like chaff before the wind on Wednesday when Coach Clair Bee's Busy Bees turned back Marquette in a game of such superlative mechanical excellence that court fans are still talking about it."

An afterthought because: It's hard to shake the stigma that the NIT has developed since 1939.

If you remember nothing else, remember this: Bee led LIU to a 43-game winning streak from 1935-1936. The streak was snapped at Madison Square Garden, as Stanford's Hank Luisetti introduced a "strange new maneuver" to the sport of basketball "“ the jump shot.

5. 1992-2003 De La Salle Football

The Concord, Calif., high school won an absurd 151 straight games and was named national champion by USA Today five times from 1992-2003 before losing to Bellevue (Wash.) 39-20. The Spartans' undoing in defeat? They couldn't stop the run, as Bellevue rushed 54 times for 463 yards. Afterward, De La Salle head coach Bob Ladouceur told reporters it was time for his team to lose: "I'm all for there being a lot of king of the hills, not just one." Can you imagine Bill Belichick uttering those words?

An afterthought because: It's high school football.

If you remember nothing else, remember this: De La Salle graduates in last year's Super Bowl include New York Giants wide receiver Amani Toomer and New England Patriots backup quarterback Matt Gutierrez, who is pictured above.

6. 1951 University of San Francisco Football

After punctuating their perfect regular season with a 20-2 win over Loyola of Los Angeles, the 9-0 Dons waited anxiously for a bowl invite that never came. While some bowl officials claimed they passed over the team because the Dons weren't well enough known to draw fans to their games, San Francisco sportscaster Ira Blue reported that Gator Bowl President Sam Wolfson said his bowl, and at least two others, wanted to avoid teams with "Negro" players. USF boasted two African-Americans, Ollie Matson and Burl Toler, and the Dons refused to accept invites that came with the stipulation that Matson and Toler had to stay home.

An afterthought because: Without the money that a trip to a bowl game would've brought in, USF dropped football after the 1951 season.

If you remember nothing else, remember this: Nine players from the 1951 USF team went on to play in the NFL, including future Hall of Fame inductees Gino Marchetti, Bob St. Clair, and Matson. Toler suffered a career ending injury in 1952, but later became the first African-American official in the NFL.

7. 1993 Buffalo Bandits

One year after winning a championship in their inaugural season, the Buffalo Bandits defeated Philadelphia 13-12 in the championship game of the Major Indoor Lacrosse League to cap its 10-0 season. Buffalo remains the only team to finish a season undefeated in the history of the league, which later became the National Lacrosse League. The general manager of that team, Johnny Mouradian, will be elected into the National Lacrosse League Hall of Fame later this month.

An afterthought because: You probably can't name another team in the National Lacrosse League.

If you remember nothing else, remember this: Darris Kilgour, Buffalo's first ever draft pick in 1992, now coaches the Bandits.

8. 1998 Raleigh Wings

Women's national soccer team captain Carla Overbeck and fellow UNC graduate Robin Confer helped lead Raleigh of the W-League to a 17-0 record in 1998. Confer had two goals in the tournament and garnered MVP honors for Raleigh, which defeated the Boston Renegades in the championship game.

An afterthought because: The franchise is now defunct, among other reasons.

If you remember nothing else, remember this: Overbeck would go on to play every minute of every game for the U.S. National team in the 1999 World Cup. She scored the first goal of the penalty kick shootout that ended with teammate Brandi Chastain's memorable game-winner in the final against China.

7 Tips for Winning an Arm Wrestling Match

iStock
iStock

Geoff Hale was playing Division II college baseball in Kansas City, Missouri, when he sat down and started flipping through the channels on his TV. There—probably on TBS—was Over the Top, the 1987 arm wrestling melodrama starring Sylvester Stallone as Lincoln Hawke, a truck driver who aspires to win his estranged son’s affections. And to do that, he has to win a national arm wrestling tournament. Obviously.

Neither the worst nor the best of Stallone’s efforts, Over the Top made Hale recall his high school years and how the fringe sport had satisfied his athletic interests, which weren't being met by baseball. “I had never lost a match,” Hale tells Mental Floss of his arm wrestling prowess. “The movie reminded me that I was good at it.”

That was 13 years ago. Now a professional competitor known as the Haleraiser, the full-time petroleum geologist has won several major titles. While you may not have the constitution for the surprisingly traumatic sport (more on that later), you might still want to handle yourself in the event of a spontaneous match breaking out. We asked Hale for some tips on what to do when you’re confronted with the opportunity to achieve a modest amount of glory while arm-grappling on a beer-stained table. This is what he told us.

1. KNOW THAT SIZE DOESN'T MATTER.

A child uses books to help in arm-wrestling an adult
iStock

Well, it does. But really only if your opponent knows what they’re doing. Otherwise, having a bowling pin for a forearm isn’t anything to be wary about. If anything, your densely-built foe may have a false sense of confidence. “Everyone has arm-wrestled since they were a kid and thinks they know what it is,” Hale says. “It looks easy, but there’s actually a very complex set of movements. It’s good to check your ego at the door.”

2. PRETEND YOU’RE PART OF THE TABLE.

A man offers to arm wrestle from behind a table
iStock

When you square up with your opposition to lock hands—thumb digging into the fleshy part, fingers wrapped around the back—don’t lean over the table with your butt in the air. And don’t make the common mistake of sitting down for a match, either. “It limits you from a technique standpoint,” Hale says, and could even open you up to injury.

Instead, you want to plant the foot that matches your dominant hand under the table with your hip touching the edge. With your free hand, grip the edge or push down on the top for stability. “Pretend like you’re part of the table,” Hale says. That way, you’ll be able to recruit your shoulders, triceps, and biceps into the competition.

3. REMEMBER TO BREATHE.

Two men engage in an arm wrestling match
iStock

If you’re turning the color of a lobster, you’re probably holding in your breath. “Don’t,” Hale says. Remember to continue taking in air through your nose. There’s no benefit to treating the match like a diving expedition. The lack of oxygen will just tire your muscles out faster.

4. BEAT THE HAND, NOT THE ARM.

Two hands appear in close-up during an arm wrestling contest
iStock

There are three basic techniques in arm wrestling, according to Hale: the shoulder press, the hook, and the top roll. The shoulder press recruits the shoulder right behind the arm, pushing the opposing appendage down as if you were performing a triceps pressdown. The hook is more complex, varying pressure from all sides and incorporating pulling motions to bend the wrist backward. For the best chance of winning, opt for the top roll, which involves sliding your hand up your opponent’s so your grip is attacking the top portion nearest the fingers. That way, he or she is recruiting fewer major muscle groups to resist. “When you beat the hand, the arm follows,” Hale says. Because this is more strategy than strength, you might wind up toppling some formidable-looking opponents.

5. IN A STALEMATE, WAIT FOR AN OPENING.

A man and woman engage in an arm wrestling contest
iStock

While lots of arm wrestling matches end quickly, others become a battle of attrition. When you find yourself locked up in the middle of the table, wait for your opponent to relax. They almost always will. “In a neutral position, it’s good to stay static, keeping your body and arm locked up,” Hale says. “You’re just waiting for your opponent to make a mistake.” The moment you feel their arm lose tension, attack.

6. TRY SCREAMING.

A woman screams while winning an arm wrestling contest
iStock

Arm wrestlers play all kinds of psychological games, and while some might be immune to trash talk, it’s likely your rival will be influenced by some selective insults. “You can make someone lose their focus easily,” Hale says. “In a stalemate, you can give them a hard time, tell them they’re not strong. It’s intimidating to be out of breath and to see someone just talking.”

7. WHEN ALL ELSE FAILS, GO SECOND.

A man struggles while losing an arm wrestling contest
iStock

Arm wrestling exacts a heavy toll on winners and losers alike: The prolonged muscle contractions can easily fatigue people not used to the exertion. If you fear a loss from a bigger, stronger opponent, conspire to have them wrestle someone else first, then take advantage of their fatigue.

If all goes well, you might want to consider pursuing the sport on more competitive levels—but you probably shouldn’t. “It takes a toll on the body,” Hale says. “I’ve got tendonitis and don’t compete as much as I used to. On the amateur level, it’s common to see arm breaks, usually the humerus [upper arm] bone. The body was not really made for arm wrestling.”

Does the University of Florida Still Make Money Off Gatorade?

George Frey, Getty Images
George Frey, Getty Images

In September 1965, 10 freshmen players on the University of Florida's Gators football team agreed to let the school's kidney disease specialist, Robert Cade, assess their hydration levels during practices. He took urine samples. He interviewed athletes. He asked to take their rectal temperature during games.

The players agreed to all but the last request. In analyzing his results, Cade discovered that the wilting heat, coupled with a lack of hydration, resulted in subjects who were very low on electrolytes like sodium and potassium, sometimes losing six to nine pounds of water per practice session—with some footballers having anecdotes of 15 to 20 pounds lost during games. Cade felt that players suffered from low blood volume and low blood sugar. Many, in fact, were being hospitalized after overexerting themselves without drinking enough water, traditionally seen as a way of building toughness in players. Those who remained on field were surely not playing up to their potential.

Cade mixed water, sugar, salt, and lemon juice, then ordered them to drink the solution to keep their bodies in balance. By 1967, the Gators were all consuming "Gatorade," and incidences of heat stroke fell sharply. The Gators secured a 9-2 record in 1966; the team became renowned for their renewed energy during the second half, and ignited a transformation in sports science. Decades later and backed by a massive promotional machine, Gatorade has permeated both professional sports and amateur athletics alike, replenishing electrolytes lost during physical activity. Roughly 632 million cases were sold in 2013 alone.

With the sports drink having been born on the Gators's playing field and invented by a University of Florida employee, it's not hard to see why both Cade's estate (he died in 2007) and the school get a percentage of royalties from sales, an agreement that's still in place today. But if they had their way, the university would be getting all of it.

A University of Florida coach is soaked in Gatorade by his players after a win
Donald Miralle, Getty Images

After Cade and his co-researchers finalized Gatorade’s formula, Cade approached the school's head of sponsored research to see if they wanted to come to an arrangement over the rights to the drink (Cade wanted $10,000) and determine if they wanted to try and sell it to a national distributor. According to Cade, University of Florida (UF) officials weren't interested, so he struck a deal with beverage maker Stokely Van-Camp in 1967.

Stokely's offer was for Cade and his cohorts—now known as the Gatorade Trust—to receive a $25,000 cash payment, a $5000 bonus, and a five-cent royalty on each gallon of Gatorade sold. When UF realized that they had been shortsighted in assessing the brand's mass market appeal—and that they were missing out on profits—they allegedly told Cade that the drink belonged to them.

"Go to hell," Cade responded, a statement that kicked off several years of litigation.

While Cade was a university employee, funds for his work actually came from the government—specifically, the Department of Health. He also managed to avoid signing an agreement solidifying his inventions as school property. For these reasons, and because both sides anticipated an endless and costly legal jiu-jitsu match in their futures, the two accepted a federal ruling in 1972. The Gatorade Trust would continue to receive their royalties, and the school would take 20 percent of the disbursement.

Initially, that meant one cent for every gallon of Gatorade sold, a fraction of the five cents owed to the Trust. In September 1973, following the first full year of the agreement, UF made $115,296 in royalties and earmarked the funds for kidney research and marine science.

Gatorade cups are shown stacked in a locker room
J. Meric, Getty Images

That's a considerable sum, but it's nothing compared to what poured out in the decades to come. When Stokely Van-Camp was purchased by Quaker Oats in 1983, they kicked off a heavy promotional campaign that highlighted Gatorade in commercials and sponsored teams. Coaches began getting doused with jugs full of Gatorade following big victories. When PepsiCo bought Quaker for $13.4 billion in 2000, they leveraged their marketing muscle to further engender the brand.

Consequently, both the Gatorade Trust and UF have profited immensely. As of 2015, the Trust had earned well over $1 billion in royalties, with 20 percent, or about $281 million, going to UF. The five-cent per gallon formula has been replaced by a percentage: between 1.9 percent and 3.6 percent depending on how much Gatorade is sold annually, according to ESPN's Darren Rovell, with the University taking a fifth of that. The funds have been invested in the school's Genetics Institute, the Whitney Marine Laboratory in St. Augustine, and to help disperse seed money for grants.

The school naturally has an affinity for the stuff, but that can occasionally come into conflict with other marketing deals. In 2016, the University of Florida’s women's basketball team played in the NCAA Tournament, which was sponsored by Powerade, a competing sports drink made by Coca-Cola. As a compromise, the players dumped their Gatorade into Powerade bottles and cups. The beverage born on campus—one that's netted them nearly $300 million to date—always comes first.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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