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8 Octopus Facts (one for each arm)

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There's absolutely no telling how many moms and dads have reached a point during this holiday season when they've thought, "I can't do everything at once. I'm not an octopus, y'know!" Well, having eight arms might sound like fun, but there's more to being an octopus than spitting out ink and attending Detroit Red Wings games. Here are 8 facts about these fascinating aquatic creatures that you may not have known. Enjoy!

1. All varieties of octopus are venomous.

oct1.jpgFortunately, only a few species have enough venom to injure or kill a human being. One of these is the blue ringed octopus, which is responsible for at least two confirmed deaths. Octopi inject their venom using a tough beak-like mouth that sticks out of the side of their head. It's similar to a bird's beak and is made of the same tough material as a lobster's shell.

2. A female octopus, known as a hen, may lay 100 thousand eggs...

...over its one-to-two-week fertile period. The transparent eggs are protected by the mother in the octopus' lair for several weeks. In most species, the eggs hatch, and the larval octopi swim for the surface where they may remain for a month or more. The vast majority of them die during this period. Weather and turbulent water get many of them, while others are swallowed up along with plankton by larger sea creatures.

3. An octopus' "ink" serves three important purposes.

Most - but not all - octopus species come equipped with an "ink sac" that spews out a stream of dark liquid into the water when the creature is threatened. When frightened, an octopus often "swallows" water with its body and ejects it forcefully. This not only propels the animal away from the danger, but also forces out a trail of "ink." This ink, which may be red, brown, or black, is made of melanin, the same dark pigment that colors human skin and hair. The ink's effects are three-fold: First, the initial "jet" of ink visually distracts, confuses, and perhaps even frightens the predator. Secondly, it may interfere with the predator's sense of smell or sight. And third, once dispersed, the ink clouds the water to help give the octopus time to escape.

4. An octopus' suckers are arranged in two rows down each arm

Some species have more suckers than others. And while some species grow a standard number of suckers on each arm by the time they become adults, the number of suckers on the arms of other species may vary. In some cases, female octopi have more suckers than the men, but only because of what "makes the male the male." Read on.

5. One arm of a male octopus is, well, special.

The third right arm, to be exact. At the tip of this "hectocotylus" arm is the ligula, which serves as its reproductive organ. In some species, the arm is visibly different since it has fewer suckers than the other seven arms. When a male fertilizes a female's eggs, she doesn't necessarily lay them right away. She may hold them for days or weeks before she feels ready to do so.

6. An octopus sees the same thing upside down as right-side up.

oct2.jpgThe large and complex eyes of an octopus help it to perform the two functions most necessary for survival: finding food and avoiding trouble. While most of the rest of the creature's body is quite flexible in the water, the eyes are more solid. As a result, some species of octopus can squeeze through tight spaces only slightly larger than their eyes.

Oddly, an octopus' eyes have horizontal pupils (in direct contrast to felines, whose eyes have vertical pupils). What's even more unusual is that the octopus' eyes remain at the same orientation regardless of the creature's position. So if it turns on its side or even upside down, the gaze of the eyes remain fixed in relation to the horizon.

7. Octopi don't like the spotlight.

Octopi like to keep hidden away. They'll usually find a cave or a formation in the rocks that allows them to remain secluded, but smaller octopi may hide inside a clamshell. They can actually crawl inside and use their suckers to pull the shell closed. Once the creatures get larger, however, they find clamshells are more interesting because they tend to include a tasty clam. A hungry octopus may perform any of a number of steps to open a clamshell. It may drill into the shell using its beak, it may use digestive juices to soften up the shell to break inside, or it may use its suckers and arms to pull the shell apart.

8. An octopus may also eat its own.

A hungry adult octopus isn't shy about consuming young octopi. After all, the smaller creatures can't put up much of a fight.

What's more, a study published in the March 2008 edition of Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology describes a female octopus that attacked, suffocated, and spent two days eating a male who'd just mated with her 13 times over a 3.5-hour period. And you thought your significant other was needy...

Happy holidays, everyone!

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10 Surprising Facts About The Babadook
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In 2014, The Babadook came out of nowhere and scared audiences across the globe. Written and directed by Aussie Jennifer Kent, and based on her short film Monster, The Babadook is about a widow named Amelia (played by Kent’s drama schoolmate Essie Davis) who has trouble controlling her young son Samuel (Noah Wiseman), who thinks there’s a monster living in their house. Amelia reads Samuel a pop-up book, Mister Babadook, and Samuel manifests the creature into a real-life monster. The Babadook may be the villain, but the film explores the pitfalls of parenting and grief in an emotional way. 

“I never approached this as a straight horror film,” Kent told Complex. “I always was drawn to the idea of grief, and the suppression of that grief, and the question of, how would that affect a person? ... But at the core of it, it’s about the mother and child, and their relationship.”

Shot on a $2 million budget, the film grossed more than $10.3 million worldwide and gained an even wider audience via streaming networks. Instead of creating Babadook out of CGI, a team generated the images in-camera, inspired by the silent films of Georges Méliès and Lon Chaney. Here are 10 things you might not have known about The Babadook (dook, dook).

1. THE NAME “BABADOOK” WAS EASY FOR A CHILD TO INVENT.

Jennifer Kent told Complex that some people thought the creature’s name sounded “silly,” which she agreed with. “I wanted it to be like something a child could make up, like ‘jabberwocky’ or some other nonsensical name,” she explained. “I wanted to create a new myth that was just solely of this film and didn’t exist anywhere else.”

2. JENNIFER KENT WAS WORRIED PEOPLE WOULD JUDGE THE MOTHER.

Amelia isn’t the best mother in the world—but that’s the point. “I’m not a parent,” Kent told Rolling Stone, “but I’m surrounded by friends and family who are, and I see it from the outside … how parenting seems hard and never-ending.” She thought Amelia would receive “a lot of flak” for her flawed parenting, but the opposite happened. “I think it’s given a lot of women a sense of reassurance to see a real human being up there,” Kent said. “We don’t get to see characters like her that often.”

3. KENT AND ESSIE DAVIS TONED DOWN THE CONTENT FOR THE KID.

Noah Wiseman was six years old when he played Samuel. Kent and Davis made sure he wasn’t present for the more horrific scenes, like when Amelia tells Samuel she wishes he was the one who died, not her husband. “During the reverse shots, where Amelia was abusing Sam verbally, we had Essie yell at an adult stand-in on his knees,” Kent told Film Journal. “I didn’t want to destroy a childhood to make this film—that wouldn’t be fair.”

Kent explained a “kiddie version” of the plot to Wiseman. “I said, ‘Basically, Sam is trying to save his mother and it’s a film about the power of love.’”

4. THE FILM IS ALSO ABOUT “FACING OUR SHADOW SIDE.”

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Kent told Film Journal that “The Babadook is a film about a woman waking up from a long, metaphorical sleep and finding that she has the power to protect herself and her son.” She noted that everybody has darkness to face. “Beyond genre and beyond being scary, that’s the most important thing in the film—facing our shadow side.”

5. THE FILM SCARED THE HELL OUT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE EXORCIST.

In an interview with Uproxx, William Friedkin—director of The Exorcist—said The Babadook was one of the best and scariest horror films he’d ever seen. He especially liked the emotional aspect of the film. “It’s not only the simplicity of the filmmaking and the excellence of the acting not only by the two leads, but it’s the way the film works slowly but inevitably on your emotions,” he said.

6. AN ART DEPARTMENT ASSISTANT SCORED THE ROLE AS THE BABADOOK.

Tim Purcell worked in the film’s art department but then got talked into playing the titular character after he acted as the creature for some camera tests. “They realized they could save some money, and have me just be the Babadook, and hence I became the Babadook,” Purcell told New York Magazine. “In terms of direction, it was ‘be still a lot,’” he said.

7. THE MOVIE BOMBED IN ITS NATIVE AUSTRALIA.

Even though Kent shot the film in Adelaide, Australians didn’t flock to the theaters; it grossed just $258,000 in its native country. “Australians have this [built-in] aversion to seeing Australian films,” Kent told The Cut. “They hardly ever get excited about their own stuff. We only tend to love things once everyone else confirms they’re good … Australian creatives have always had to go overseas to get recognition. I hope one day we can make a film or work of art and Australians can think it’s good regardless of what the rest of the world thinks.”

8. YOU CAN OWN A MISTER BABADOOK BOOK (BUT IT WILL COST YOU). 

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In 2015, Insight Editions published 6200 pop-up books of Mister Babadook. Kent worked with the film’s illustrator, Alexander Juhasz, who created the book for the movie. He and paper engineer Simon Arizpe brought the pages to life for the published version. All copies sold out but you can find some Kent-signed ones on eBay, going for as much as $500.

9. THE BABADOOK IS A GAY ICON.

It started at the end of 2016, when a Tumblr user started a jokey thread about how he thought the Babadook was gay. “It started picking up steam within a few weeks,” Ian, the Tumblr user, told New York Magazine, “because individuals who I presume are heterosexual kind of freaked out over the assertion that a horror movie villain would identify as queer—which I think was the actual humor of the post, as opposed to just the outright statement that the Babadook is gay.” In June, the Babadook became a symbol for Gay Pride month. Images of the character appeared everywhere at this year's Gay Pride Parade in Los Angeles.

10. DON'T HOLD YOUR BREATH FOR A SEQUEL.

Kent, who owns the rights to The Babadook, told IGN that, despite the original film's popularity, she's not planning on making any sequels. “The reason for that is I will never allow any sequel to be made, because it’s not that kind of film,” she said. “I don’t care how much I’m offered, it’s just not going to happen.”

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Space
NASA Is Posting Hundreds of Retro Flight Research Videos on YouTube
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Bruce Weaver / Stringer / Getty Images

If you’re interested in taking a tour through NASA history, head over to the YouTube page of the Armstrong Flight Research Center, located at Edwards Air Force Base, in southern California. According to Motherboard, the agency is in the middle of posting hundreds of rare aircraft videos dating back to the 1940s.

In an effort to open more of its archives to the public, NASA plans to upload 500 historic films to YouTube over the next few months. More than 300 videos have been published so far, and they range from footage of a D-558 Skystreak jet being assembled in 1947 to a clip of the first test flight of an inflatable-winged plane in 2001. Other highlights include the Space Shuttle Endeavour's final flight over Los Angeles and a controlled crash of a Boeing 720 jet.

The research footage was available to the public prior to the mass upload, but viewers had to go through the Dryden Aircraft Movie Collection on the research center’s website to see them. The current catalogue on YouTube is much easier to browse through, with clear playlist categories like supersonic aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. You can get a taste of what to expect from the page in the sample videos below.

[h/t Motherboard]

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