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3 Really Long Wars

Some wars seem to go on forever, and others actually do. Here are a few wars that have outlasted entire generations of people.

1. Isles of Scilly vs. Dutch Republic (335 Years)

The Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years' War is not only among the world's longest wars, but also one with the fewest casualties. Remarkably, a shot was never even fired, and the two parties didn't even know that they were in a war.

stmartins.jpgThe conflict originated during the Second English Civil War, part of the historic fight between Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentarians against King Charles I and his Royalist army. The Parliamentarians dominated the war and reduced the Royalists to a single stronghold in Cornwall, in the western United Kingdom. The Royalists were forced to retreat to the islands of Scilly, a scarcely populated archipelago known for its natural beauty (kind of a British Hawaii). The Dutch owed England for their help during the 80 Years' War against the Spanish, and so they sided with the seeming victor and sent naval support to the Isles of Scilly. The Dutch suffered serious cargo and ship losses; Admiral Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp went to Scilly to demand reparations from the Royalists. When he was denied, he declared war specifically upon the Isles of Scilly on April 17, 1651. Months later, the Royalists surrendered to the Parliamentarians, King Charles was beheaded, and the Dutch left the area without officially declaring peace.

In 1985, a historian wrote to the Dutch Embassy in London asking them to dispel the myth that the two parties remained in a war. After some research, the myth was proven true. A light-hearted peace treaty signing ceremony took place April 17, 1986, exactly 335 years after war had been declared.

2. Arauco War (About 290 Years)

During their domination of South America, the Spanish repeatedly tried to colonize the Mapuche, who had already thwarted attempts by the Incas. The war started in 1536 at the Battle of Reynogüelén, where the Spanish met a strong army while attempting to investigate the Strait of Magellan. The Mapuche refused to let the Spanish even cut through their territory and attacked the small Spanish army. Though the Spanish were outnumbered 24,000 to 5,000, their advanced weapons killed thousands of Mapuches and forced them to retreat.

270px-Espanoles_guerreando_en_chile_ovalle.jpgOver the following decades, the two sides met often in battle, with mixed results. But the Mapuche remained independent from Spanish rule, thanks in part to the natural boundary of the Bio Bio River. Battles were common during the 300 years of Spanish presence, but trade and interchange between Mapuche and Spaniards or Chileans also became common. The heaviest fighting occurred before 1609, when a maintenance treaty was signed between the Spanish-appointed governor of Chile and the Mapuche chiefs.

The War of Chilean Independence expelled Spanish rule from Chile. Surprisingly, the Mapuches opposed the war and the transition. With the Spanish gone, peace was established on January 7, 1825, about 290 years after the first battle. Chile used force and diplomacy to absorb Mapuche territories and the Mapuche were immediately devastated by starvation, disease and economic loss.

3. Japan, Russia and Montenegro (Various Lengths)

Diplomatic technicalities have legally extended many wars, but some of the strangest seem to involve Russia and Japan.

peace-treaty.jpgThe Russo-Japanese war started in 1904 and lasted only a year. Montenegro, a small Adriatic republic, showed support for their ally Russia by also declaring war on Japan. Of course, the tiny nation of Montenegro didn't have a navy or really any way to engage in combat against the Japanese, who were thousands of miles away. Though the actual war was rather swift, Montenegro didn't attend the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth with Russian and Japan, nor did they seek their own treaty. The issue was forgotten about for decades as Montenegro joined Yugoslavia and later Serbia, but was brought to attention when Montenegro opted for sole independence in 2006. Finally, the Japan and Montenegro signed an official peace treaty in 2006. [Image courtesy of Britannica.com.]

But, wait, that's not it. Russia, now the Soviet Union, declared war on Japan again in 1945 during World War II and remain formally in a state of war to this day. Though they were in attendance, the Soviet Union refused to sign Treaty of San Francisco, the peace pact between the Allied Powers and Japan signed in 1951. The Soviet delegation opposed the lack of a guarantee against Japanese militarism and the exclusion of communist China from the conference (among other things). Additionally, the two nations still have a heated dispute over ownership of the Kuril Islands, an area taken by the Soviets during the war. Japan maintains that the islands of Kunashiri, Etorofu, Shikotan and the Habomai rocks are not part of the Kuril Islands, and thus belong to Japan. Russia maintains that they own the four disputed islands. The two nations signed a joint declaration of peace to restore diplomatic relations in 1956. However, they have not formally ended the declaration of war. Russia will hand over the Shikotan and Habomai islands "provided that the actual changing over to Japan of these islands will be carried out after the conclusion of a peace treaty." So far, no one has proposed a treaty and Russia administers all of the Kuril Islands. The issue was raised again in summer 2008 when the Japanese government issued a new guideline for textbooks stating that the islands were under their rule.

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Yes, You Can Put Your Christmas Decorations Up Now—and Should, According to Psychologists
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We all know at least one of those people who's already placing an angel on top of his or her Christmas tree while everyone else on the block still has paper ghosts stuck to their windows and a rotting pumpkin on the stoop. Maybe it’s your neighbor; maybe it’s you. Jolliness aside, these early decorators tend to get a bad rap. For some people, the holidays provide more stress than splendor, so the sight of that first plastic reindeer on a neighbor's roof isn't exactly a welcome one.

But according to two psychoanalysts, these eager decorators aren’t eccentric—they’re simply happier. Psychoanalyst Steve McKeown told UNILAD:

“Although there could be a number of symptomatic reasons why someone would want to obsessively put up decorations early, most commonly for nostalgic reasons either to relive the magic or to compensate for past neglect.

In a world full of stress and anxiety people like to associate to things that make them happy and Christmas decorations evoke those strong feelings of the childhood.

Decorations are simply an anchor or pathway to those old childhood magical emotions of excitement. So putting up those Christmas decorations early extend the excitement!”

Amy Morin, another psychoanalyst, linked Christmas decorations with the pleasures of childhood, telling the site: “The holiday season stirs up a sense of nostalgia. Nostalgia helps link people to their personal past and it helps people understand their identity. For many, putting up Christmas decorations early is a way for them to reconnect with their childhoods.”

She also explained that these nostalgic memories can help remind people of spending the holidays with loved ones who have since passed away. As Morin remarked, “Decorating early may help them feel more connected with that individual.”

And that neighbor of yours who has already been decorated since Halloween? Well, according to a study in the Journal of Environmental Psychology, homes that have been warmly decorated for the holidays make the residents appear more “friendly and cohesive” compared to non-decorated homes when observed by strangers. Basically, a little wreath can go a long way.

So if you want to hang those stockings before you’ve digested your Thanksgiving dinner, go ahead. You might just find yourself happier for it.

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11 Black Friday Purchases That Aren't Always The Best Deal
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Black Friday can bring out some of the best deals of the year (along with the worst in-store behavior), but that doesn't mean every advertised price is worth splurging on. While many shoppers are eager to save a few dollars and kickstart the holiday shopping season, some purchases are better left waiting for at least a few weeks (or longer).

1. FURNITURE

Display of outdoor furniture.
Photo by Isaac Benhesed on Unsplash

Black Friday is often the best time to scope out deals on large purchases—except for furniture. That's because newer furniture models and styles often appear in showrooms in February. According to Kurt Knutsson, a consumer technology expert, the best furniture deals can be found in January, and later on in July and August. If you're aiming for outdoor patio sets, expect to find knockout prices when outdoor furniture is discounted and put on clearance closer to Labor Day.

2. TOOLS

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Unless you're shopping for a specific tool as a Christmas gift, it's often better to wait until warmer weather rolls around to catch great deals. While some big-name brands offer Black Friday discounts, the best tool deals roll around in late spring and early summer, just in time for Memorial Day and Father's Day.

3. BEDDING AND LINENS

A stack of bed linens.
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Sheet and bedding sets are often used as doorbuster items for Black Friday sales, but that doesn't mean you should splurge now. Instead, wait for annual linen sales—called white sales—to pop up after New Year's. Back in January of 1878, department store operator John Wanamaker held the first white sale as a way to push bedding inventory out of his stores. Since then, retailers have offered these top-of-the-year sales and January remains the best time to buy sheets, comforters, and other cozy bed linens.

4. HOLIDAY DÉCOR

Rows of holiday gnomes.
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If you are planning to snag a new Christmas tree, lights, or other festive décor, it's likely worth making due with what you have and snapping up new items after December 25. After the holidays, retailers are looking to quickly move out holiday items to make way for spring inventory, so ornaments, trees, yard inflatables, and other items often drastically drop in price, offering better deals than before the holidays. If you truly can't wait, the better option is shopping as close to Christmas as possible, when stores try to reduce their Christmas stock before resorting to clearance prices.

5. TOYS

Child choosing a toy car.
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Unless you're shopping for a very specific gift that's likely to sell out before the holidays, Black Friday toy deals often aren't the best time to fill your cart at toy stores. Stores often begin dropping toy prices two weeks before Christmas, meaning there's nothing wrong with saving all your shopping (and gift wrapping) until the last minute.

6. ENGAGEMENT RINGS AND JEWELRY

Rows of rings.
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Holiday jewelry commercials can be pretty persuasive when it comes to giving diamonds and gold as gifts. But, savvy shoppers can often get the best deals on baubles come spring and summer—prices tend to be at their highest between Christmas and Valentine's Day thanks to engagements and holiday gift-giving. But come March, prices begin to drop through the end of summer as jewelers see fewer purchases, making it worth passing up Black Friday deals.

7. PLANE TICKETS AND TRAVEL PACKAGES

Searching for flights online.
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While it's worth looking at plane ticket deals on Black Friday, it's not always the best idea to whip out your credit card. Despite some sales, the best time to purchase a flight is still between three weeks and three and a half months out. Some hotel sites will offer big deals after Thanksgiving and on Cyber Monday, but it doesn't mean you should spring for next year's vacation just yet. The best travel and accommodation deals often pop up in January and February when travel numbers are down.

8. FOOD AND SNACK BASKETS

Gift basket against a blue background.
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Fancy fruit, meat and cheese, and snack baskets are easy gifts for friends and family (or yourself, let's be honest), but they shouldn't be snagged on Black Friday. And because baskets are jam-packed full of perishables, you likely won't want to buy them a month away from the big day anyway. But traditionally, you'll spend less cheddar if you wait to make those purchases in December.

9. WINTER CLOTHING

Rack of women's winter clothing.
Photo by Hannah Morgan on Unsplash.

Buying clothing out of season is usually a big money saver, and winter clothes are no exception. Although some brands push big discounts online and in-store, the best savings on coats, gloves, and other winter accessories can still be found right before Black Friday—pre-Thanksgiving apparel markdowns can hit nearly 30 percent off—and after the holidays.

10. SMARTPHONES

Group of hands holding smartphones.
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While blowout tech sales are often reserved for Cyber Monday, retailers will try to pull you in-store with big electronics discounts on Black Friday. But, not all of them are really the best deals. The price for new iPhones, for example, may not budge much (if at all) the day after Thanksgiving. If you're in the market for a new phone, the best option might be waiting at least a few more weeks as prices on older models drop. Or, you can wait for bundle deals that crop up during December, where you pay standard retail price but receive free accessories or gift cards along with your new phone.

11. KITCHEN GADGETS

Row of hanging kitchen knives and utensils.
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Black Friday is a great shopping day for cooking enthusiasts—at least for those who are picky about their kitchen appliances. Name-brand tools and appliances often see good sales, since stores drop prices upwards of 40 to 50 percent to move through more inventory. But that doesn't mean all slow cookers, coffee makers, and utensil prices are the best deals. Many stores advertise no-name kitchen items that are often cheaply made and cheaply priced. Purchasing these lower-grade items can be a waste of money, even on Black Friday, since chances are you may be stuck looking for a replacement next year. And while shoppers love to find deals, the whole point of America's unofficial shopping holiday is to save money on products you truly want (and love).

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