3 Really Short Wars

Many leaders resort to war only as a last resort, and vow to achieve their results quickly. Here are a few wars that did just that, including one that was over in less time than it would take to watch a History Channel special about it.

1. Sino-Vietnamese War (27 Days)

sino-war.jpgThe 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War was the third in a little over twenty years between the two countries and was started, in part, by unresolved issues from previous conflicts. China supported the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, while Vietnam opposed it. Cambodia feared an invasion by Vietnam after diplomatic relations collapsed, and so they attacked Vietnam first, resulting in Vietnam invading and occupying Cambodia for over a decade. After large-scale fighting between Vietnam and Cambodia ended, China stood up for their ally and attacked Soviet-backed Vietnam.

The Chinese attacked Vietnam along their shared border and took several small villages in heavy combat. On March 5, the Chinese announced the campaign was over, stating that they had made their point and adequately chastised Vietnam for its actions. This war would be only 16 days long; however, the Chinese continued to cause extensive damage to villages, roads and railroads during their retreat. The conflict was officially resolved on March 16, 1979, just 27 days after it began.

Both sides claimed victory and heavy but unconfirmed casualties. The Vietnamese government continuously requested an official apology from the Chinese government for its seemingly pointless invasion of Vietnam, but never got one. Relations were normalized in 1990 after several small border skirmishes, and Vietnam officially dropped its demand for an apology. Vietnam continued to occupy Cambodia until 1989, though the Khmer Rouge had been seriously weakened by the Vietnamese occupation.

2. The India-Pakistan War (13 Days)

india-pakistan.jpgIndia and Pakistan aren't exactly known as friendly neighbors. Skirmishes, diplomatic aggression and war are common—in fact, the 1971 conflict was the third since the countries gained independence in 1947. The shortest and perhaps most devastating war originated over the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh.

Pakistan was accused of many atrocities against humanity in East Pakistan (which it ruled), causing as many as 10 million refugees to flee to India. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi used diplomacy with the UN and the Soviet Union to strengthen India's position and provided weapons to the East Pakistanis. Though both sides had prepared for war, Pakistan launched an air strike on December 3, 1971, and India immediately declared war.

Indian forces used blitzkreig techniques to quickly overpower the Pakistanis. Pakistan forces in Bangladesh surrendered on December 16; the rest of Pakistan surrendered the next day.

3. The Anglo-Zanzibar War (40 Minutes)

marines.jpgTaking the prize as the shortest war on the history books is the Anglo-Zanzibar War, measured not in months, days, or even hours, but minutes (about 40 of them).

Back in the day of British imperialism, the British administered the island of Zanzibar (now part of Tanzania) as a sovereign protectorate with a puppet government. When favored Sultan Hamad bin Thuwaini died on August 25, 1896, he was immediately replaced by his nephew Khalid bin Barghash, who wasn't exactly the guy the British had in mind—and on top of that, he was suspected of killing his uncle. The British used a succession treaty signed earlier in the year to leverage an ultimatum: abdicate or face war. Instead, Sultan Khalid raised his flag outside his palace and barricaded himself inside along with his guards and about 2800 Zanzibaris.

By the time the deadline expired two days later, the British had amassed a powerful naval fleet just outside the palace. The Zanzibaris, believing that the British wouldn't open fire, sent a page telling them just that. The British promptly unleashed a powerful bombardment of shells, machine gun fire and cannonballs. The attack lasted about 40 minutes but caused extensive damage. The wooden palace had caught fire, the Sultan's flag had been removed, and 500 natives had been killed. The British took over the demolished palace and installed their Sultan of choice, while Sultan Khalid escaped to German East Africa, where he was captured in 1916 during World War I. There were no further altercations between the Zanzibaris and the British for the remainder of their reign, which lasted until December of 1963.

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College Board Wants to Erase Thousands of Years From AP World History, and Teachers Aren't Happy
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One would be forgiven for thinking that the Ides of March are upon us, because Julius Caesar is being taken out once again—this time from the Advanced Placement World History exam. The College Board in charge of the AP program is planning to remove the Roman leader, and every other historical figure who lived and died prior to 1450, from high school students’ tests, The New York Times reports.

The nonprofit board recently announced that it would revise the test, beginning in 2019, to make it more manageable for teachers and students alike. The current exam covers over 10,000 years of world history, and according to the board, “no other AP course requires such an expanse of content to be covered over a single school year.”

As an alternative, the board suggested that schools offer two separate year-long courses to cover the entirety of world history, including a Pre-AP World History and Geography class focusing on the Ancient Period (before 600 BCE) up through the Postclassical Period (ending around 1450). However, as Politico points out, a pre-course for which the College Board would charge a fee "isn’t likely to be picked up by cash-strapped public schools," and high school students wouldn't be as inclined to take the pre-AP course since there would be no exam or college credit for it.

Many teachers and historians are pushing back against the proposed changes and asking the board to leave the course untouched. Much of the controversy surrounds the 1450 start date and the fact that no pre-colonial history would be tested.

“They couldn’t have picked a more Eurocentric date,” Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks, who previously helped develop AP History exams and courses, told The New York Times. “If you start in 1450, the first thing you’ll talk about in terms of Africa is the slave trade. The first thing you’ll talk about in terms of the Americas is people dying from smallpox and other things. It’s not a start date that encourages looking at the agency and creativity of people outside Europe.”

A group of teachers who attended an AP open forum in Salt Lake City also protested the changes. One Michigan educator, Tyler George, told Politico, “Students need to understand that there was a beautiful, vast, and engaging world before Europeans ‘discovered’ it.”

The board is now reportedly reconsidering its decision and may push the start date of the course back some several hundred years. Their decision will be announced in July.

[h/t The New York Times]

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North America: East or West Coast?
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