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3 Really Short Wars

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Many leaders resort to war only as a last resort, and vow to achieve their results quickly. Here are a few wars that did just that, including one that was over in less time than it would take to watch a History Channel special about it.

1. Sino-Vietnamese War (27 Days)

sino-war.jpgThe 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War was the third in a little over twenty years between the two countries and was started, in part, by unresolved issues from previous conflicts. China supported the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, while Vietnam opposed it. Cambodia feared an invasion by Vietnam after diplomatic relations collapsed, and so they attacked Vietnam first, resulting in Vietnam invading and occupying Cambodia for over a decade. After large-scale fighting between Vietnam and Cambodia ended, China stood up for their ally and attacked Soviet-backed Vietnam.


The Chinese attacked Vietnam along their shared border and took several small villages in heavy combat. On March 5, the Chinese announced the campaign was over, stating that they had made their point and adequately chastised Vietnam for its actions. This war would be only 16 days long; however, the Chinese continued to cause extensive damage to villages, roads and railroads during their retreat. The conflict was officially resolved on March 16, 1979, just 27 days after it began.

Both sides claimed victory and heavy but unconfirmed casualties. The Vietnamese government continuously requested an official apology from the Chinese government for its seemingly pointless invasion of Vietnam, but never got one. Relations were normalized in 1990 after several small border skirmishes, and Vietnam officially dropped its demand for an apology. Vietnam continued to occupy Cambodia until 1989, though the Khmer Rouge had been seriously weakened by the Vietnamese occupation.

2. The India-Pakistan War (13 Days)

india-pakistan.jpgIndia and Pakistan aren't exactly known as friendly neighbors. Skirmishes, diplomatic aggression and war are common—in fact, the 1971 conflict was the third since the countries gained independence in 1947. The shortest and perhaps most devastating war originated over the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh.


Pakistan was accused of many atrocities against humanity in East Pakistan (which it ruled), causing as many as 10 million refugees to flee to India. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi used diplomacy with the UN and the Soviet Union to strengthen India's position and provided weapons to the East Pakistanis. Though both sides had prepared for war, Pakistan launched an air strike on December 3, 1971, and India immediately declared war.

Indian forces used blitzkreig techniques to quickly overpower the Pakistanis. Pakistan forces in Bangladesh surrendered on December 16; the rest of Pakistan surrendered the next day.

3. The Anglo-Zanzibar War (40 Minutes)

marines.jpgTaking the prize as the shortest war on the history books is the Anglo-Zanzibar War, measured not in months, days, or even hours, but minutes (about 40 of them).


Back in the day of British imperialism, the British administered the island of Zanzibar (now part of Tanzania) as a sovereign protectorate with a puppet government. When favored Sultan Hamad bin Thuwaini died on August 25, 1896, he was immediately replaced by his nephew Khalid bin Barghash, who wasn't exactly the guy the British had in mind—and on top of that, he was suspected of killing his uncle. The British used a succession treaty signed earlier in the year to leverage an ultimatum: abdicate or face war. Instead, Sultan Khalid raised his flag outside his palace and barricaded himself inside along with his guards and about 2800 Zanzibaris.

By the time the deadline expired two days later, the British had amassed a powerful naval fleet just outside the palace. The Zanzibaris, believing that the British wouldn't open fire, sent a page telling them just that. The British promptly unleashed a powerful bombardment of shells, machine gun fire and cannonballs. The attack lasted about 40 minutes but caused extensive damage. The wooden palace had caught fire, the Sultan's flag had been removed, and 500 natives had been killed. The British took over the demolished palace and installed their Sultan of choice, while Sultan Khalid escaped to German East Africa, where he was captured in 1916 during World War I. There were no further altercations between the Zanzibaris and the British for the remainder of their reign, which lasted until December of 1963.

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Big Questions
What's the Difference Between Vanilla and French Vanilla Ice Cream?
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While you’re browsing the ice cream aisle, you may find yourself wondering, “What’s so French about French vanilla?” The name may sound a little fancier than just plain ol’ “vanilla,” but it has nothing to do with the origin of the vanilla itself. (Vanilla is a tropical plant that grows near the equator.)

The difference comes down to eggs, as The Kitchn explains. You may have already noticed that French vanilla ice cream tends to have a slightly yellow coloring, while plain vanilla ice cream is more white. That’s because the base of French vanilla ice cream has egg yolks added to it.

The eggs give French vanilla ice cream both a smoother consistency and that subtle yellow color. The taste is a little richer and a little more complex than a regular vanilla, which is made with just milk and cream and is sometimes called “Philadelphia-style vanilla” ice cream.

In an interview with NPR’s All Things Considered in 2010—when Baskin-Robbins decided to eliminate French Vanilla from its ice cream lineup—ice cream industry consultant Bruce Tharp noted that French vanilla ice cream may date back to at least colonial times, when Thomas Jefferson and George Washington both used ice cream recipes that included egg yolks.

Jefferson likely acquired his taste for ice cream during the time he spent in France, and served it to his White House guests several times. His family’s ice cream recipe—which calls for six egg yolks per quart of cream—seems to have originated with his French butler.

But everyone already knew to trust the French with their dairy products, right?

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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science
Belly Flop Physics 101: The Science Behind the Sting
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Belly flops are the least-dignified—yet most painful—way of making a serious splash at the pool. Rarely do they result in serious physical injury, but if you’re wondering why an elegant swan dive feels better for your body than falling stomach-first into the water, you can learn the laws of physics that turn your soft torso a tender pink by watching the SciShow’s video below.

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