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2010: the End of the Incandescent

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You had a good run, incandescent light bulbs. Essentially unchanged since Edison invented the first commercially practical incandescent bulb in 1879, save for occasional improvements in efficiency and production cost, it served us well for more than 100 years. But now the EU has declared that 2010 will be the official funeral of the incandescent light bulb -- in Europe, at least. Canada, Australia, the Philippines and even Cuba have announced similar ban dates -- the US has too, but was a little slower on the uptake -- our ban doesn't go into effect until 2014. (The bans don't restrict the use of incandescents, only their sale.)

The well-publicized trouble with incandescents, of course, is that 90% of the power they consume is turned into heat rather than light. Since governments around the world have gotten ban-happy, General Electric and other incandescent bulb manufacturers have announced that they're working on new bulbs called "high-efficiency incandescents" that may be up to four times more efficient than the kind we currently have -- but it may be a case of too little, too late. CFLs use about a fifth of the energy it takes to power an incandescent.

Amazingly, the compact flourescent bulbs that seem so revolutionary today were actually developed in 1973, in response to the oil crisis -- by General Electric! But the $25 million it would've cost to build factories to produce the new bulbs was deemed too expensive. The design was shelved, and eventually leaked to other companies, who introduced them into the global market in the early 80s, where they've slowly but steadily grown in popularity. Widespread adoption of CFLs in American households could reduce household power usage by up to 7% across the country. If this seems like a small number, consider that much of the lighting power used in the US is in parking lots and big box stores -- and once those guys switch to more efficient lighting, we'll see some serious drops in power consumption across the board.

Bring on the bans!

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Name the Author Based on the Character
May 23, 2017
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