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The Quick 10: The Previous Names of 10 Airports

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I leave for vacation on Sunday, so I'm a little preoccupied with getting the house in order, getting laundry done, printing confirmations, getting the dogs kennelled at the vet, etc. I'm explaining all of this just so you can tell where I'm coming from with today's Q10. Enjoy!

1. LaGuardia, New York "“ It was originally Glenn H. Curtiss Airport, then North Beach Airport, and finally, Fiorello H. La Guardia Airport after the former mayor of New York.

idlewild
2. JFK, New York - Originally Idlewild, Major General Alexander E. Anderson Airport, then New York International. Even though John F. Kennedy was assassinated in November of 1963, people scrambled to get the airport renamed in his honor - the task was completed by the end of the year.

3. LAX, L.A. "“ When it was just a dirt landing strip, it was Mines Field, and held that name even after it became an official airport. In 1941 it was renamed Los Angeles Airport, and then Los Angeles International Airport, AKA LAX, in 1949.

4. Logan, Boston "“ On opening day in 1923, it was called Boston Airport.

Then, when the Massachusetts Air Guard and Army Air Corps were pretty much the only ones using it, it was called Jeffery Field. It was renamed after Bostonian and Spanish-American War hero General Edward Lawrence Logan in 1956.

5. Ronald Reagan National Airport, D.C. "“ Well, it used to be two airports that merged "“ Hoover Field, located close to where the Pentagon is today, and Washington Airport, pretty much right next door. They merged and became the creatively-named Washington-Hoover Airport. Then in 1941, it became Washington National Airport. President Clinton had it renamed in 1998 to commemorate Ronald Reagan's 87th birthday. That decision wasn't a popular one with the aviation industry - Reagan fired more than 11,000 air traffic controllers who went on strike in 1981. The Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority at first refused to rename the metro station that went to the airport, but eventually gave in. I bet there are still ATCs who still refer to it only as Washington National or National.

6. Heathrow, London "“ The Great Western Aerodome (back when it was privately owned in the 1930s).

7. de Gaulle, Paris "“ Aéroport de Paris Nord, renamed after Charles de Gaulle in 1974. Random fact, "˜cause I'm a font nerd: the font Frutiger was created by Adrian Frutiger specifically for use at the airport, although it was called Roissy at the time. Frutiger designed Univers, too.

8. McCarran, Las Vegas "“ Davy Crockett descendant George Crockett established McCarren as Alamo Airport in 1942. Clark County bought it in 1948 and renamed it the Clark County Public Airport "“ briefly. That same year they named it after Nevada Senator Pat McCarran.

mccoy9. Orlando International, Orlando "“ Like a lot of other airports, this one started out as Air Force property. During WWII, it was called Pinecastle Army Airfield, then McCoy Air Force Base. When it was decided to make it a joint military/civilian airport in 1962, the civilian side was referred to as the Orlando Jetport at McCoy. The Air Force left that base in 1975, and in 1976, the airport became Orlando International Airport.

10. O'Hare, Chicago "“ Originally it was Orchard Place Airport/Douglas Field, which is why we call it ORD (where the "R" comes from, I don't know). Douglas Aircraft Company's contract was up in 1945, so the name changes to Orchard Field Airport. Then, in 1949, it was renamed O'Hare to honor Lt. Cmdr. Edward "Butch" O'Hare, who was awarded the Medal of Honor for his flying in WWII.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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technology
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Cs California, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0
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science
How Experts Say We Should Stop a 'Zombie' Infection: Kill It With Fire
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Cs California, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

Scientists are known for being pretty cautious people. But sometimes, even the most careful of us need to burn some things to the ground. Immunologists have proposed a plan to burn large swaths of parkland in an attempt to wipe out disease, as The New York Times reports. They described the problem in the journal Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews.

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a gruesome infection that’s been destroying deer and elk herds across North America. Like bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, better known as mad cow disease) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, CWD is caused by damaged, contagious little proteins called prions. Although it's been half a century since CWD was first discovered, scientists are still scratching their heads about how it works, how it spreads, and if, like BSE, it could someday infect humans.

Paper co-author Mark Zabel, of the Prion Research Center at Colorado State University, says animals with CWD fade away slowly at first, losing weight and starting to act kind of spacey. But "they’re not hard to pick out at the end stage," he told The New York Times. "They have a vacant stare, they have a stumbling gait, their heads are drooping, their ears are down, you can see thick saliva dripping from their mouths. It’s like a true zombie disease."

CWD has already been spotted in 24 U.S. states. Some herds are already 50 percent infected, and that number is only growing.

Prion illnesses often travel from one infected individual to another, but CWD’s expansion was so rapid that scientists began to suspect it had more than one way of finding new animals to attack.

Sure enough, it did. As it turns out, the CWD prion doesn’t go down with its host-animal ship. Infected animals shed the prion in their urine, feces, and drool. Long after the sick deer has died, others can still contract CWD from the leaves they eat and the grass in which they stand.

As if that’s not bad enough, CWD has another trick up its sleeve: spontaneous generation. That is, it doesn’t take much damage to twist a healthy prion into a zombifying pathogen. The illness just pops up.

There are some treatments, including immersing infected tissue in an ozone bath. But that won't help when the problem is literally smeared across the landscape. "You cannot treat half of the continental United States with ozone," Zabel said.

And so, to combat this many-pronged assault on our wildlife, Zabel and his colleagues are getting aggressive. They recommend a controlled burn of infected areas of national parks in Colorado and Arkansas—a pilot study to determine if fire will be enough.

"If you eliminate the plants that have prions on the surface, that would be a huge step forward," he said. "I really don’t think it’s that crazy."

[h/t The New York Times]

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