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History of the World: Famous Fires

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If you're a good sleuth—I mean, if you could really give Sherlock Holmes or Nancy Drew a run for their money—then you might have noticed that the _floss has a book coming out at the end of the month. That means we have roughly 400 pages jam-packed with fascinating flossiness to share with you. It comes out October 28, so between now and then, we thought we'd feature some of our favorite bits. I've been through it three or four times now and I find something new and interesting every time—hopefully you'll agree!

Rome

romeDuring the night of July 18, 64 CE, a fire broke out in the shops near the Circus Maximus, the city's mammoth stadium. It spread quickly and lasted more than a week, destroying more than 70 percent of Rome. Who was the culprit? Romans had their eyes on Nero, who made no bones about wanting a new palace in the center of the city. The Senate held him off because they didn't want to tear down perfectly good buildings just to make his (not-so) humble abode, so obviously citizens assumed Nero took things into his own hands. It was even said that Nero's thugs stopped people who tried to put the fire out. But, truth be told, Nero wasn't even in town. When he heard, he rushed back to Rome and did what he could to help. But Romans weren't convinced of his innocence, so he pointed the finger at Christians and had hundreds executed horribly and painfully. In reality, the fire probably did start by accident, although some historians still blame Nero and some think the more zealous Christians could have actually started it by trying to fulfill Biblical prophecies.

The Globe Theater

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It's easy to be snooty about your Shakespeare knowledge these days, or feel a little high brow if you're attending a stage production of King Lear or something. But in Shakespeare's time, the experience was actually really bawdy. The Globe was located in the same neighborhood as buildings that hosted cockfights, the place was lousy with pickpockets and it was totally commonplace for theatergoers to yell at the actors and throw things at the stage. With such craziness and riot-like crowds, it's not that surprising that a theatrical cannon went off in the wrong direction, hit the rafters and started a fire. The fire burned the Globe to the ground, but miraculously, records show that only one person was hurt. That's pretty amazing considering that the Globe often packed in 3,000 people for one play. And the one guy who was injured? Well, that was his own fault. When his pants caught on fire, he thought it would be best to extinguish the flames by dousing them with ale.

Tokyo

On September 2, 1923, a four-minute, 7.4-on-the-Richter-scale earthquake rocked Tokyo. It definitely did some damage, but worse were the fires that popped up everywhere afterward. It happened right around lunchtime, so thousands of stoves were lit. This resulted in, well, thousands of little fires that joined up with the large ones already in progress. All in all, the death toll was more than 130,000 with more than 700,000 residences destroyed. Worse, though, all of the mayhem created rumors that Japan was being invaded, so vigilante mobs started beating and killing non-Japanese, especially Koreans.

Dante's Inferno

DANTE

OK, it's a different type of fire, but a fire nonetheless. Dante Alighieri pretty much based his Inferno on creative ways of torturing people throughout history whom he really hated. Despite being more than a vengeful and, you know, creepy, it was actually a really good thing: he wrote in his native Italian, so ordinary people were able to read his writings. His books were so influential that a lot of his spellings and grammar have carried over into modern Italian.

Picture 4.pngIt's the greatest deal in the history of history books! Our first hardback, The Mental Floss History of the World: An Irreverent Romp Through History's Best Bits, hits stores later this month, and we're so excited that we've teamed up with the fine folks at Amazon.com to give you a special deal. Pre-order the book before October 27th and we'll throw in 6 FREE MONTHS of mental_floss magazine! Just click here to get the deal now.

For more about the book, check out our FAQ.

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Animals
25 Benefits of Adopting a Rescue Dog
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According to the ASPCA, 3.3 million dogs enter shelters each year in the United States. Although that number has gone down since 2011 (from 3.9 million) there are still millions of dogs waiting in shelters for a forever home. October is Adopt a Shelter Dog Month; here are 25 benefits of adopting a shelter dog.

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How Urban Legends Like 'The Licked Hand' Are Born
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If you compare the scary stories you heard as a kid with those of your friends—even those who grew up across the country from you—you’ll probably hear some familiar tales. Maybe you tried to summon Bloody Mary by chanting her name in front of the mirror three times in a dark bathroom. Maybe you learned never to wonder what’s under a woman’s neck ribbon. Maybe you heard the one about the girl who feels her dog lick her hand in the middle of the night, only to wake up to find him hanging dead from the shower nozzle, the words “humans can lick too” written on the wall in the dog’s blood.

These ubiquitous, spooky folk tales exist everywhere, and a lot of them take surprisingly similar forms. How does a single story like the one often called “Humans Can Lick Too” or "The Licked Hand" make its way into every slumber party in America? Thrillist recently investigated the question with a few experts, finding that most of these stories have very deep roots.

In the case of The Licked Hand, its origins go back more than a century. In the 1990s, Snopes found that a similar motif dates back to an Englishman’s diary entry from 1871. In it, the diary keeper, Dearman Birchall, retold a story he heard at a party of a man whose wife woke him up in the middle of the night, urging him to go investigate what sounded like burglars in their home. He told his wife that it was only the dog, reaching out his hand. He felt the dog lick his hand … but in the morning, all his valuables were gone: He had clearly been robbed.

A similar theme shows up in the short story “The Diary of Mr. Poynter,” published in 1919 by M.R. James. In it, a character dozes off in an armchair, and thinks that he is petting his dog. It turns out, it’s some kind of hairy human figure that he flees from. The story seems to have evolved from there into its presently popular form, picking up steam in the 1960s. As with any folk tale, its exact form changes depending on the teller: sometimes the main character is an old lady, other times it’s a young girl.

You’ll probably hear these stories in the context of happening to a “friend of a friend,” making you more likely to believe the tale. It practically happened to someone you know! Kind of! The setting, too, is probably somewhere nearby. It might be in your neighborhood, or down by the local railroad tracks.

Thrillist spoke to Dr. Joseph Stubbersfield, a researcher in the UK who studies urban legends, who says the kind of stories that spread widely contain both social information and emotional resonance. Meaning they contain a message—you never know who’s lurking in your house—and are evocative.

If something is super scary or gross, you want to share it. Stories tend to warn against something: A study of English-language urban legends circulating online found that most warned listeners about the hazards of life (poisonous plants, dangerous animals, dangerous humans) rather than any kind of opportunities. We like to warn each other of the dangers that could be lurking around every corner, which makes sense considering our proven propensity to focus on and learn from negative information. And yes, that means telling each other to watch out for who’s licking our hands in the middle of the night.

Just something to keep in mind as you eagerly await Jezebel’s annual scary story contest.

[h/t Thrillist]

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