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The Quick 10: 10 Magic Kingdom Attractions and Their Secrets

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It was on this day in 1971 that Walt Disney World in Florida opened up to the public. It might not mean much to some of you, but I'm pretty grateful that it opened "“ I was born to a Disney-holic mom so I took many a family vacation to Florida just to spend a few days at Disney. In fact, my first trip was when I was not even a year old. That's a good 18 hours in the car (we never flew, oh no). Luckily, I'm an only child, so I had the whole backseat to myself all of those years. No fighting over someone crossing the invisible line that divided the backseat territory or anything like that. My parents spent a lot of time yelling at me to get my nose of out my books and pay attention to the scenery, but to no avail. To this day, I have no idea what Tennessee looks like (I'm kidding).

Anyway, to show my appreciation for the creation of Disney World, today's Q10 is trivia about the Magic Kingdom, which is the WDW park that actually opened on this date. The other parks that comprise Walt Disney World are EPCOT, which opened on October 1, 1982; Disney-MGM Studios (now Hollywood Studios), which opened on May 1, 1989; and Disney's Animal Kingdom, which opened on April 22, 1998.

castle1. Cinderella Castle is what most people think of when they think of the Magic Kingdom. It's an amalgam of several different castles, but most sources cite Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria as the main inspiration. It's 189 feet tall, which is more than twice the size of Sleeping Beauty Castle at Disneyland (77 feet tall). I'm outing myself as a huge Disney geek here, but oh well: Disneyphiles like to stump one another by asking, "How many bricks were used to build Cinderella Castle?" But any self-respecting Disney buff knows the answer: None. The castle is only made to look brick. The castle is redecorated from time to time, and I was there for one of the most hideous transformations ever "“ in 1996, Imagineers made the castle look like a birthday cake to celebrate the 25th anniversary. It gave me a toothache just looking at it. Picture from Wikipedia user Ciccone39.

2. Walt was into the railroad, big-time. He even built a miniature steam railroad in his back yard. So, it makes sense that special attention was given to the Walt Disney World Railroad, the steam-powered railroad that takes you around the perimeter of the Magic Kingdom. There are four trains, named the Walter E. Disney, the Lily Belle (After Walt's wife), the Roger E. Broggie (he helped acquire the trains) and the Roy O. Disney (Walt's brother). It takes three people to run each train: the conductor, of course, the engineer, and a fireman.

3. Liberty Square is probably my favorite part of the Magic Kingdom "“ we'll get to why in a minute. It's small but packed full with details "“ if you look in the upstairs window of the House of Burgesses, you'll see lanterns that symbolize Paul Revere's "One if by land, two if by sea". The replica of the Liberty Bell was actually cast from the mold of the real Liberty Bell in Philly; it's the only other bell ever to be cast from that mold. There are 13 lanterns in the Liberty Tree, which represent the 13 colonies, and the Liberty Tree is an actual 100-year-old oak tree that has been grafted with a younger oak. I've read that there are buildings and architectural elements that represent each of the 13 colonies, but I can't vouch for that "“ I guess I'll have to pay more attention when I am there in three weeks!

4. Liberty Square is my favorite land because it's home to the Haunted Mansion.

I could make a whole post out of the Haunted Mansion (and perhaps I will, closer to Halloween), but I'll stick to this for now: Paul Frees, who is the voice of your Ghost Host at the Mansion, was also the voice of lots of other beloved characters: John Lennon and George Harrison in the Beatles cartoon, the Pillsbury Doughboy, Toucan Sam (also voiced at other times by Mel Blanc and Maurice LaMarche), and Boris Badenov from Rocky and Bullwinkle. I'm amazed at how people can make their voices sound so different.

If you've never experienced the ride, here you go:

5. Cinderella's Golden Carousel in Fantasyland was made by the most prestigious carousel company in the States "“ the Philadelphia Toboggan Company. But it wasn't made specifically for Disney. Nope, Walt bought it from the Olympic Park in New Jersey when it closed in 1967. There are 90 horses, all maintained by one woman who hand-paints each one with unique patterns and color schemes. If you snag the horse that has a golden bow on its tail, you're in luck "“ that's said to be the horse of Cinderella herself.

6. Out of the 289 dolls that you'll find on "it's a small world", only two of them are American "“ and you won't find either bedecked in red, white and blue. One is a cowboy and one is Inuit.

7. The Carousel of Progress is an attraction in Tomorrowland that is often overlooked because people are rushing to get to more exciting rides such as Space Mountain and Buzz Lightyear Space Ranger Spin. But it's a nice, relaxing attraction that features the voice of one of the best narrators of all time: Jean Shepherd. Who? He's the narrator of A Christmas Story (and author of the book it was based on). In the Carousel of Progress, he plays the dad. One of the grandmas is voiced by Judy Jetson (Janet Waldo) and Debi Derryberry, who voices the daughter, is also the voice of Jimmy Neutron.

8. Big Thunder Mountain Railroad is a crazy roller coaster trip through the Old West "“ and those artifacts you see scattered throughout the ride are real. Disney bought pieces such as a double-stamp ore crusher, an ore-hauling wagon and an old ball mill at auctions.

9. The Swiss Family Treehouse is another attraction that I think goes overlooked a lot. It's a super-detailed replica of the tree the Swiss Family Robinson lived in. To support its 60-foot height, the structure goes 42 feet below ground. The 330,000 leaves might look real, but they aren't "“ they are polyethylene. The whole thing weighs more than 200 tons.

toad10. Much to my chagrin, the Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh replaced Mr. Toad's Wild Ride in 1999. But if you pay enough attention during the ride, you can still catch a glimpse of old Toadie "“ at the very beginning of the ride, you'll see some picture frames. Check them out "“ one of them is Mr. Toad handing off the deed to the attraction to Owl from Winnie the Pooh.

If you're more loyal to Disneyland in California, never fear: I did a Q10 on it in July, the anniversary of its opening.

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10 Memorable Neil deGrasse Tyson Quotes
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Michael Campanella/Getty Images

Neil deGrasse Tyson is America's preeminent badass astrophysicist. He's a passionate advocate for science, NASA, and education. He's also well-known for a little incident involving Pluto. And the man holds nearly 20 honorary doctorates (in addition to his real one). In honor of his 59th birthday, here are 10 of our favorite Neil deGrasse Tyson quotes.

1. ON SCIENCE

"The good thing about science is that it's true whether or not you believe in it."
—From Real Time with Bill Maher.

2. ON NASA FUNDING

"As a fraction of your tax dollar today, what is the total cost of all spaceborne telescopes, planetary probes, the rovers on Mars, the International Space Station, the space shuttle, telescopes yet to orbit, and missions yet to fly?' Answer: one-half of one percent of each tax dollar. Half a penny. I’d prefer it were more: perhaps two cents on the dollar. Even during the storied Apollo era, peak NASA spending amounted to little more than four cents on the tax dollar." 
—From Space Chronicles

3. ON GOD AND HURRICANES

"Once upon a time, people identified the god Neptune as the source of storms at sea. Today we call these storms hurricanes ... The only people who still call hurricanes acts of God are the people who write insurance forms."
—From Death by Black Hole

4. ON THE BENEFITS OF TECHNOLOGY INVENTED FOR USE IN SPACE

"Countless women are alive today because of ideas stimulated by a design flaw in the Hubble Space Telescope." (Editor's note: technology used to repair the Hubble Space Telescope's optical problems led to improved technology for breast cancer detection.)
—From Space Chronicles

5. ON THE DEMOTION OF PLUTO FROM PLANET STATUS 


PBS

"I knew Pluto was popular among elementary schoolkids, but I had no idea they would mobilize into a 'Save Pluto' campaign. I now have a drawer full of hate letters from hundreds of elementary schoolchildren (with supportive cover letters from their science teachers) pleading with me to reverse my stance on Pluto. The file includes a photograph of the entire third grade of a school posing on their front steps and holding up a banner proclaiming, 'Dr. Tyson—Pluto is a Planet!'"
—From The Sky Is Not the Limit

6. ON JAMES CAMERON'S TITANIC

"In [Titanic], the stars above the ship bear no correspondence to any constellations in a real sky. Worse yet, while the heroine bobs ... we are treated to her view of this Hollywood sky—one where the stars on the right half of the scene trace the mirror image of the stars in the left half. How lazy can you get?"
—From Death by Black Hole

7. ON DEATH BY ASTEROID

"On Friday the 13th, April 2029, an asteroid large enough to fill the Rose Bowl as though it were an egg cup will fly so close to Earth that it will dip below the altitude of our communication satellites. We did not name this asteroid Bambi. Instead, we named it Apophis, after the Egyptian god of darkness and death."
—From Space Chronicles

8. ON THE MOTIVATIONS BEHIND AMERICA'S MOONSHOT

"[L]et us not fool ourselves into thinking we went to the Moon because we are pioneers, or discoverers, or adventurers. We went to the Moon because it was the militaristically expedient thing to do."
—From The Sky Is Not the Limit

9. ON INTELLIGENT LIFE (OR THE LACK THEREOF)

Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/n/neildegras615117.html
Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/n/neildegras615117.html

"Perhaps we've never been visited by aliens because they have looked upon Earth and decided there's no sign of intelligent life."

10. PRACTICAL ADVICE IN THE EVENT OF ALIEN CONTACT 

A still from Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
Universal Studios

"[I]f an alien lands on your front lawn and extends an appendage as a gesture of greeting, before you get friendly, toss it an eightball. If the appendage explodes, then the alien was probably made of antimatter. If not, then you can proceed to take it to your leader."
—From Death by Black Hole

How Apple's '1984' Super Bowl Ad Was Almost Canceled

More than 30 years ago, Apple defined the Super Bowl commercial as a cultural phenomenon. Prior to Super Bowl XVIII, nobody watched the game "just for the commercials"—but one epic TV spot, directed by sci-fi legend Ridley Scott, changed all that. Read on for the inside story of the commercial that rocked the world of advertising, even though Apple's Board of Directors didn't want to run it at all.

THE AD

If you haven't seen it, here's a fuzzy YouTube version:

"WHY 1984 WON'T BE LIKE 1984"

The tagline "Why 1984 Won't Be Like '1984'" references George Orwell's 1949 novel 1984, which envisioned a dystopian future, controlled by a televised "Big Brother." The tagline was written by Brent Thomas and Steve Hayden of the ad firm Chiat\Day in 1982, and the pair tried to sell it to various companies (including Apple, for the Apple II computer) but were turned down repeatedly. When Steve Jobs heard the pitch in 1983, he was sold—he saw the Macintosh as a "revolutionary" product, and wanted advertising to match. Jobs saw IBM as Big Brother, and wanted to position Apple as the world's last chance to escape IBM's domination of the personal computer industry. The Mac was scheduled to launch in late January of 1984, a week after the Super Bowl. IBM already held the nickname "Big Blue," so the parallels, at least to Jobs, were too delicious to miss.

Thomas and Hayden wrote up the story of the ad: we see a world of mind-controlled, shuffling men all in gray, staring at a video screen showing the face of Big Brother droning on about "information purification directives." A lone woman clad in vibrant red shorts and a white tank-top (bearing a Mac logo) runs from riot police, dashing up an aisle towards Big Brother. Just before being snatched by the police, she flings a sledgehammer at Big Brother's screen, smashing him just after he intones "We shall prevail!" Big Brother's destruction frees the minds of the throng, who quite literally see the light, flooding their faces now that the screen is gone. A mere eight seconds before the one-minute ad concludes, a narrator briefly mentions the word "Macintosh," in a restatement of that original tagline: "On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you'll see why 1984 won't be like '1984.'" An Apple logo is shown, and then we're out—back to the game.

In 1983, in a presentation about the Mac, Jobs introduced the ad to a cheering audience of Apple employees:

"... It is now 1984. It appears IBM wants it all. Apple is perceived to be the only hope to offer IBM a run for its money. Dealers, initially welcoming IBM with open arms, now fear an IBM-dominated and -controlled future. They are increasingly turning back to Apple as the only force that can ensure their future freedom. IBM wants it all and is aiming its guns on its last obstacle to industry control: Apple. Will Big Blue dominate the entire computer industry? The entire information age? Was George Orwell right about 1984?"

After seeing the ad for the first time, the Apple audience totally freaked out (jump to about the 5-minute mark to witness the riotous cheering).

SKINHEADS, A DISCUS THROWER, AND A SCI-FI DIRECTOR

Chiat\Day hired Ridley Scott, whose 1982 sci-fi film Blade Runner had the dystopian tone they were looking for (and Alien wasn't so bad either). Scott filmed the ad in London, using actual skinheads playing the mute bald men—they were paid $125 a day to sit and stare at Big Brother; those who still had hair were paid to shave their heads for the shoot. Anya Major, a discus thrower and actress, was cast as the woman with the sledgehammer largely because she was actually capable of wielding the thing.

Mac programmer Andy Hertzfeld wrote an Apple II program "to flash impressive looking numbers and graphs on [Big Brother's] screen," but it's unclear whether his program was used for the final film. The ad cost a shocking $900,000 to film, plus Apple booked two premium slots during the Super Bowl to air it—carrying an airtime cost of more than $1 million.

WHAT EXECUTIVES AT APPLE THOUGHT

Although Jobs and his marketing team (plus the assembled throng at his 1983 internal presentation) loved the ad, Apple's Board of Directors hated it. After seeing the ad for the first time, board member Mike Markkula suggested that Chiat\Day be fired, and the remainder of the board were similarly unimpressed. Then-CEO John Sculley recalled the reaction after the ad was screened for the group: "The others just looked at each other, dazed expressions on their faces ... Most of them felt it was the worst commercial they had ever seen. Not a single outside board member liked it." Sculley instructed Chiat\Day to sell off the Super Bowl airtime they had purchased, but Chiat\Day principal Jay Chiat quietly resisted. Chiat had purchased two slots—a 60-second slot in the third quarter to show the full ad, plus a 30-second slot later on to repeat an edited-down version. Chiat sold only the 30-second slot and claimed it was too late to sell the longer one. By disobeying his client's instructions, Chiat cemented Apple's place in advertising history.

When Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak heard that the ad was in trouble, he offered to pony up half the airtime costs himself, saying, "I asked how much it was going to cost, and [Steve Jobs] told me $800,000. I said, 'Well, I'll pay half of it if you will.' I figured it was a problem with the company justifying the expenditure. I thought an ad that was so great a piece of science fiction should have its chance to be seen."

But Woz didn't have to shell out the money; the executive team finally decided to run a 100-day advertising extravaganza for the Mac's launch, starting with the Super Bowl ad—after all, they had already paid to shoot it and were stuck with the airtime.

1984 - Big Brother

WHAT EVERYBODY ELSE THOUGHT

When the ad aired, controversy erupted—viewers either loved or hated the ad, and it spurred a wave of media coverage that involved news shows replaying the ad as part of covering it, leading to estimates of an additional $5 million in "free" airtime for the ad. All three national networks, plus countless local markets, ran news stories about the ad. "1984" become a cultural event, and served as a blueprint for future Apple product launches. The marketing logic was brilliantly simple: create an ad campaign that sparked controversy (for example, by insinuating that IBM was like Big Brother), and the media will cover your launch for free, amplifying the message.

The full ad famously ran once during the Super Bowl XVIII (on January 22, 1984), but it also ran the month prior—on December 31, 1983, TV station operator Tom Frank ran the ad on KMVT at the last possible time slot before midnight, in order to qualify for 1983's advertising awards.* (Any awards the ad won would mean more media coverage.) Apple paid to screen the ad in movie theaters before movie trailers, further heightening anticipation for the Mac launch. In addition to all that, the 30-second version was aired across the country after its debut on the Super Bowl.

Chiat\Day adman Steve Hayden recalled: "We ran a 30- second version of '1984' in the top 10 U.S. markets, plus, in an admittedly childish move, in an 11th market—Boca Raton, Florida, headquarters for IBM's PC division." Mac team member Andy Hertzfeld ended his remembrance of the ad by saying:

"A week after the Macintosh launch, Apple held its January board meeting. The Macintosh executive staff was invited to attend, not knowing what to expect. When the Mac people entered the room, everyone on the board rose and gave them a standing ovation, acknowledging that they were wrong about the commercial and congratulating the team for pulling off a fantastic launch.

Chiat\Day wanted the commercial to qualify for upcoming advertising awards, so they ran it once at 1 AM at a small television station in Twin Falls, Idaho, KMVT, on December 15, 1983 [incorrect; see below for an update on this -ed]. And sure enough it won just about every possible award, including best commercial of the decade. Twenty years later it's considered one of the most memorable television commercials ever made."

THE AWFUL 1985 FOLLOW-UP

A year later, Apple again employed Chiat\Day to make a blockbuster ad for their Macintosh Office product line, which was basically a file server, networking gear, and a laser printer. Directed by Ridley Scott's brother Tony, the new ad was called "Lemmings," and featured blindfolded businesspeople whistling an out-of-tune version of Snow White's "Heigh-Ho" as they followed each other off a cliff (referencing the myth of lemming suicide).

Jobs and Sculley didn't like the ad, but Chiat\Day convinced them to run it, pointing out that the board hadn't liked the last ad either. But unlike the rousing, empowering message of the "1984" ad, "Lemmings" directly insulted business customers who had already bought IBM computers. It was also weirdly boring—when it was aired at the Super Bowl (with Jobs and Sculley in attendance), nobody really reacted. The ad was a flop, and Apple even proposed running a printed apology in The Wall Street Journal. Jay Chiat shot back, saying that if Apple apologized, Chiat would buy an ad on the next page, apologizing for the apology. It was a mess:

20-YEAR ANNIVERSARY

In 2004, the ad was updated for the launch of the iPod. The only change was that the woman with the hammer was now listening to an iPod, which remained clipped to her belt as she ran. You can watch that version too:

FURTHER READING

Chiat\Day adman Lee Clow gave an interview about the ad, covering some of this material.

Check out Mac team member Andy Hertzfeld's excellent first-person account of the ad. A similar account (but with more from Jobs's point of view) can found in the Steve Jobs biography, and an even more in-depth account is in The Mac Bathroom Reader. The Mac Bathroom Reader is out of print; you can read an excerpt online, including QuickTime movies of the two versions of the ad, plus a behind-the-scenes video. Finally, you might enjoy this 2004 USA Today article about the ad, pointing out that ads for other computers (including Atari, Radio Shack, and IBM's new PCjr) also ran during that Super Bowl.

* = A Note on the Airing in 1983

Update: Thanks to Tom Frank for writing in to correct my earlier mis-statement about the first air date of this commercial. As you can see in his comment below, Hertzfeld's comments above (and the dates cited in other accounts I've seen) are incorrect. Stay tuned for an upcoming interview with Frank, in which we discuss what it was like running both "1984" and "Lemmings" before they were on the Super Bowl!

Update 2: You can read the story behind this post in Chris's book The Blogger Abides.

This post originally appeared in 2012.

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