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2008 Olympic Uniforms: Designed for Performance

The difference between winning and not winning in some Olympic events can come down to a thousandth of a second. With so much at stake, no detail can be overlooked. The uniforms worn by athletes during their performance of a lifetime are not designed for looks, but for performance enhancement, no matter how slight.

Nike developed uniforms for Team USA's track and field competitions. The multi-part outfits are called the Nike Swift System of Dress. Athletes choose which accessories they feel will be advantageous. There are socks, gloves, and arm coverings built to reduce drag. Wearing arm covering while running in the August heat may seem counterproductive, but tests show that the sleeves reduce drag by 19% over bare arms, and the long socks reduce drag by 12.5%. Nike figures the improvements in the garments since the 2004 Olympics in Athens will mean a benefit of .02 seconds in the 100 meter race.
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Team USA athletes wear various forms of the Nike uniforms designed for different events. Continue reading for innovations in uniforms for swimming, basketball, and the heat of Beijing in August.

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The USA basketball teams will also have lighter uniforms.

The new Nike designed uniform for the USA Men's and Women's teams eliminates 25 centimeters of material and reduces the weight by 31 percent when compared with current uniforms.

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Nike is supplying uniforms to China's Olympic team as well, for sports from BMX to basketball. Pictured is NBA star Yi JianLian in his Olympic uniform.
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Adidas is providing Olympic uniforms for Australian athletes. Uniforms for certain sports will feature Thermoplastic Urethane Powerbands for muscle compression in selected areas of the body, depending on the sport.

Working in unison with the muscles they function like springs and testing using the new technology has resulted in significant performance benefits including a 1.1% increase in speed, 5.3% increase on average power output and an 0.8% decrease in oxygen consumption resulting in increased efficiency and endurance.

The Australian uniforms will also feature a complex system of mesh and vents to regulate body temperature.
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Swimmers wearing Speedo's new LZR Racer swimsuits have already broken three dozen world records this year. Developed with technology from NASA, the full-length suit is made from extremely lightweight but strong elastic material. The form-fitting panels are bonded, which eliminates seams and the drag they cause. They will be available for sale to the public later this summer.

Japan, Australia, and the USA are among the nations who will wear the LZR Racers. Countries that have contracts with other suppliers protested the suit, saying it gives swimmers an unfair advantage, but those other suppliers have since developed their own high-tech swimsuits.
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The Powerskin R-evolution swimsuit from Arena boasts fabric even lighter than the LZR Racer. It is made of a single piece of fabric, with no seams in the front. The Italian and Russian Olympic swimmers will wear this suit.
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Swimsuit company Tyr developed their own full-length Tracer swimsuit, with extreme water repellency, lightweight fabric, and targeted muscle compression. Olympic swimmers from France will wear the Tracer.

Uniforms make less of a difference for artistic sports such as diving, gymnastics, martial arts, and equestrian competition. In those events, you'll see more traditional styles with a slight distinctive flair for each country.

See also: 2008 Olympic Team Uniforms for a look at what athletes from some nations will wear in Beijing for the opening and/or closing ceremonies.

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Big Questions
Why Do the Lions and Cowboys Always Play on Thanksgiving?
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Rey Del Rio/Getty Images

Because it's tradition! But how did this tradition begin?

Every year since 1934, the Detroit Lions have taken the field for a Thanksgiving game, no matter how bad their record has been. It all goes back to when the Lions were still a fairly young franchise. The team started in 1929 in Portsmouth, Ohio, as the Spartans. Portsmouth, while surely a lovely town, wasn't quite big enough to support a pro team in the young NFL. Detroit radio station owner George A. Richards bought the Spartans and moved the team to Detroit in 1934.

Although Richards's new squad was a solid team, they were playing second fiddle in Detroit to the Hank Greenberg-led Tigers, who had gone 101-53 to win the 1934 American League Pennant. In the early weeks of the 1934 season, the biggest crowd the Lions could draw for a game was a relatively paltry 15,000. Desperate for a marketing trick to get Detroit excited about its fledgling football franchise, Richards hit on the idea of playing a game on Thanksgiving. Since Richards's WJR was one of the bigger radio stations in the country, he had considerable clout with his network and convinced NBC to broadcast a Thanksgiving game on 94 stations nationwide.

The move worked brilliantly. The undefeated Chicago Bears rolled into town as defending NFL champions, and since the Lions had only one loss, the winner of the first Thanksgiving game would take the NFL's Western Division. The Lions not only sold out their 26,000-seat stadium, they also had to turn fans away at the gate. Even though the juggernaut Bears won that game, the tradition took hold, and the Lions have been playing on Thanksgiving ever since.

This year, the Lions host the Minnesota Vikings.

HOW 'BOUT THEM COWBOYS?


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The Cowboys, too, jumped on the opportunity to play on Thanksgiving as an extra little bump for their popularity. When the chance to take the field on Thanksgiving arose in 1966, it might not have been a huge benefit for the Cowboys. Sure, the Lions had filled their stadium for their Thanksgiving games, but that was no assurance that Texans would warm to holiday football so quickly.

Cowboys general manager Tex Schramm, though, was something of a marketing genius; among his other achievements was the creation of the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders.

Schramm saw the Thanksgiving Day game as a great way to get the team some national publicity even as it struggled under young head coach Tom Landry. Schramm signed the Cowboys up for the game even though the NFL was worried that the fans might just not show up—the league guaranteed the team a certain gate revenue in case nobody bought tickets. But the fans showed up in droves, and the team broke its attendance record as 80,259 crammed into the Cotton Bowl. The Cowboys beat the Cleveland Browns 26-14 that day, and a second Thanksgiving pigskin tradition caught hold. Since 1966, the Cowboys have missed having Thanksgiving games only twice.

Dallas will take on the Los Angeles Chargers on Thursday.

WHAT'S WITH THE NIGHT GAME?


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In 2006, because 6-plus hours of holiday football was not sufficient, the NFL added a third game to the Thanksgiving lineup. This game is not assigned to a specific franchise—this year, the Washington Redskins will welcome the New York Giants.

Re-running this 2008 article a few days before the games is our Thanksgiving tradition.

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History
Beyond Board Shorts: The Rich History of Hawaii's Surf Culture
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iStock

From Australia to the Arctic Circle, adrenaline junkies around the world love catching waves—but the very first people to develop surf culture were Hawaiians. Their version of the pastime shares both similarities and differences with the one that’s commonly practiced today, according to TED-Ed’s video below.

Surfing wasn’t just a sport in Hawaii—there were social and religious elements to it, too. Hawaiians made offerings to the gods while choosing trees for boards and prayed for waves. And like a high school cafeteria, the ocean was divided by social status, with certain surf breaks reserved solely for elite Hawaiians.

The surfboards themselves used by early Hawaiians largely resembled the ones we use today, although they were fin-less and required manual turns. Learn more about surfing’s roots and evolution (and how surf culture was nearly destroyed by foreign colonizers) by watching the video below.

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