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The Weekend Links

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"¢ From Angie, human beach sculptures, an installation which "consists of 100 cast iron figures which face out to sea, spread over a 3.2 km stretch of the beach. Each figure is 189 cm tall and weighs around 650 kg. As the tides ebb and flow, the figures are revealed and submerged by the sea." A little creepy, to be sure.

"¢ Paul has sent in one of the most mesmerizingly cool sites ever. The British Library offers a program called Turning the Pages, where you can explore delicately preserved pieces of literature electronically, including some of the first "books" ever made.

"¢ Also from Paul, a website extensively devoted to creative mailboxes. I even spotted one from my hometown of Columbus, Georgia. Who knew?

"¢ From Holly, an oldie but goodie: movie remakes with bunnies. Speaking of, don't ever forget about this site to help you after a long, hard day. And if you don't think I'm going to seek out that pygmy hog in real life, you are mistaken.

"¢ The Art of Manliness has selected 100 Must-Read Books: The Essential Man's Library. Get a jump on your Father's Day shopping.

"¢ Here's a list of 6 terrible movies Hollywood almost made. Here's an idea for another list: 600 terrible movies Hollywood DID make. Although I am glad we were spared these few at least.

"¢ Dawn has sent in two helpful links for our Flossy pleasure. One is Seat Guru, "a site that not only has all the seating charts of most airlines (including international airlines!) it also reviews particular seats on each type of plane the airline uses. There is also a comparison chart that shows the different seat pitches in different airlines." Also, a site I've used before (although you would think I could easily calculate a distance like "2 blocks before she runs out of breath"), Map My Run—where you can map out your run/walk, calculate distance, and check to see where there's water, restrooms, etc., even if your route doesn't stay on conventional paths or streets.

"¢ Reader Tony from Tennessee has sent in a link to his stamp blog, where in this article he details a story about incredible postal workers aboard the Titanic. Kudos to Tony, who makes stamp collecting interesting indeed!

"¢ I don't know about your guys, but here in Atlanta I have a long commute wherever I go. Here's a fun Argentinean commercial that shows what people would rather be doing on their commute than sitting in a car. I might be thinking about this two-minute vacation to the Chattahoochee River, located right here in Georgia.

"¢ From Jan, two links to the new collaborative Flickr group called Word Time, which was set up to "share the variations in our pronunciations with weekly lists of words." See an example from the first week, and learn how to participate yourself.

"¢ Stuck inside on a rainy weekend? This eco-friendly Canadian site has projects, scavenger hunts, and activities for kids.

"¢ This week's video from The Daily Tube ("the best new videos on the Internet") looks at Japanese bicycle parking.

"¢ Inspiring news: a 78-year-old man just bowled a perfect 300. The catch? He's legally blind. He suffers from macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in older adults. Read about Dale Davis' amazing story here.

"¢ Have some time on your hands? Peruse through 50 of the Greatest Commercial Parodies. Some you might not remember, but all are pure gold.

"¢ After reading yesterday's post on memorable commencement addresses, reader Bill Eccles sent in this graduation photo.

"¢ Friend of the Floss Noah Brier has been getting a lot of press for his Brand Tags project. "The basic idea of this site is that a brand exists entirely in people's heads. Therefore, whatever it is they say a brand is, is what it is." Happy tagging!

"¢ Finally, two pictures—a soothing and intriguing creation found by from my friend Kevin, and one to make you laugh from Pat.

Hope you guys have a fantastic weekend! Keep sending me links, pictures and all manner of internet arcanum at FlossyLinks@gmail.com.

[Last Weekend's Links]

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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
A Chinese Museum Is Offering Cash to Whoever Can Decipher These 3000-Year-Old Inscriptions

During the 19th century, farmers in China’s Henan Province began discovering oracle bones—engraved ox scapulae and tortoise shells used by Shang Dynasty leaders for record-keeping and divination purposes—while plowing their fields. More bones were excavated in subsequent years, and their inscriptions were revealed to be the earliest known form of systematic writing in East Asia. But over the decades, scholars still haven’t come close to cracking half of the mysterious script’s roughly 5000 characters—which is why one Chinese museum is asking member of the public for help, in exchange for a generous cash reward.

As Atlas Obscura reports, the National Museum of Chinese Writing in Anyang, Henan Province has offered to pay citizen researchers about $15,000 for each unknown character translated, and $7500 if they provide a disputed character’s definitive meaning. Submissions must be supported with evidence, and reviewed by at least two language specialists.

The museum began farming out their oracle bone translation efforts in Fall 2016. The costly ongoing project has hit a stalemate, and scholars hope that the public’s collective smarts—combined with new advances in technology, including cloud computing and big data—will yield new information and save them research money.

As of today, more than 200,000 oracle bones have been discovered—around 50,000 of which bear text—so scholars still have a lot to learn about the Shang Dynasty. Many of the ancient script's characters are difficult to verify, as they represent places and people from long ago. However, decoding even just one character could lead to a substantial breakthrough, experts say: "If we interpret a noun or a verb, it can bring many scripts on oracle bones to life, and we can understand ancient history better,” Chinese history professor Zhu Yanmin told the South China Morning Post.

[h/t Atlas Obscura]

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6 Eponyms Named After the Wrong Person
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Salmonella species growing on agar.

Having something named after you is the ultimate accomplishment for any inventor, mathematician, scientist, or researcher. Unfortunately, the credit for an invention or discovery does not always go to the correct person—senior colleagues sometimes snatch the glory, fakers pull the wool over people's eyes, or the fickle general public just latches onto the wrong name.

1. SALMONELLA (OR SMITHELLA?)

In 1885, while investigating common livestock diseases at the Bureau of Animal Industry in Washington, D.C., pathologist Theobald Smith first isolated the salmonella bacteria in pigs suffering from hog cholera. Smith’s research finally identified the bacteria responsible for one of the most common causes of food poisoning in humans. Unfortunately, Smith’s limelight-grabbing supervisor, Daniel E. Salmon, insisted on taking sole credit for the discovery. As a result, the bacteria was named after him. Don’t feel too sorry for Theobald Smith, though: He soon emerged from Salmon’s shadow, going on to make the important discovery that ticks could be a vector in the spread of disease, among other achievements.

2. AMERICA (OR COLUMBIANA?)

An etching of Amerigo Vespucci
Henry Guttmann/Getty Images

Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1451–1512) claimed to have made numerous voyages to the New World, the first in 1497, before Columbus. Textual evidence suggests Vespucci did take part in a number of expeditions across the Atlantic, but generally does not support the idea that he set eyes on the New World before Columbus. Nevertheless, Vespucci’s accounts of his voyages—which today read as far-fetched—were hugely popular and translated into many languages. As a result, when German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller was drawing his map of the Novus Mundi (or New World) in 1507 he marked it with the name "America" in Vespucci’s honor. He later regretted the choice, omitting the name from future maps, but it was too late, and the name stuck.

3. BLOOMERS (OR MILLERS?)

A black and white image of young women wearing bloomers
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Dress reform became a big issue in mid-19th century America, when women were restricted by long, heavy skirts that dragged in the mud and made any sort of physical activity difficult. Women’s rights activist Elizabeth Smith Miller was inspired by traditional Turkish dress to begin wearing loose trousers gathered at the ankle underneath a shorter skirt. Miller’s new outfit immediately caused a splash, with some decrying it as scandalous and others inspired to adopt the garb.

Amelia Jenks Bloomer was editor of the women’s temperance journal The Lily, and she took to copying Miller’s style of dress. She was so impressed with the new freedom it gave her that she began promoting the “reform dress” in her magazine, printing patterns so others might make their own. Bloomer sported the dress when she spoke at events and soon the press began to associate the outfit with her, dubbing it “Bloomer’s costume.” The name stuck.

4. GUILLOTINE (OR LOUISETTE?)

Execution machines had been known prior to the French Revolution, but they were refined after Paris physician and politician Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin suggested they might be a more humane form of execution than the usual methods (hanging, burning alive, etc.). The first guillotine was actually designed by Dr. Antoine Louis, Secretary of the Academy of Surgery, and was known as a louisette. The quick and efficient machine was quickly adopted as the main method of execution in revolutionary France, and as the bodies piled up the public began to refer to it as la guillotine, for the man who first suggested its use. Guillotin was very distressed at the association, and when he died in 1814 his family asked the French government to change the name of the hated machine. The government refused and so the family changed their name instead to escape the dreadful association.

5. BECHDEL TEST (OR WALLACE TEST?)

Alison Bechdel
Alison Bechdel
Steve Jennings/Getty Images

The Bechdel Test is a tool to highlight gender inequality in film, television, and fiction. The idea is that in order to pass the test, the movie, show, or book in question must include at least one scene in which two women have a conversation that isn’t about a man. The test was popularized by the cartoonist Alison Bechdel in 1985 in her comic strip “Dykes to Watch Out For,” and has since become known by her name. However, Bechdel asserts that the idea originated with her friend Lisa Wallace (and was also inspired by the writer Virginia Woolf), and she would prefer for it to be known as the Bechdel-Wallace test.

6. STIGLER’S LAW OF EPONYMY (OR MERTON’S LAW?)

Influential sociologist Robert K. Merton suggested the idea of the “Matthew Effect” in a 1968 paper noting that senior colleagues who are already famous tend to get the credit for their junior colleagues’ discoveries. (Merton named his phenomenon [PDF] after the parable of talents in the Gospel of Matthew, in which wise servants invest money their master has given them.)

Merton was a well-respected academic, and when he was due to retire in 1979, a book of essays celebrating his work was proposed. One person who contributed an essay was University of Chicago professor of statistics Stephen Stigler, who had corresponded with Merton about his ideas. Stigler decided to pen an essay that celebrated and proved Merton’s theory. As a result, he took Merton’s idea and created Stigler’s Law of Eponymy, which states that “No scientific discovery is named after its original discoverer”—the joke being that Stigler himself was taking Merton’s own theory and naming it after himself. To further prove the rule, the “new” law has been adopted by the academic community, and a number of papers and articles have since been written on "Stigler’s Law."

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