Rocking the House, the Kasbah and the Yurt

The globalization of everything and anything has pushed heavy metal to the four corners of the earth, and a surprising number of countries are home to burgeoning metal scenes (Namibian speed metal! Israeli stoner rock!) In some parts of the world, playing in "“ or even listening to "“ a metal band is seen as an attempt to tear down the foundations of society. Here are a few instances where loud guitars, black t-shirts and libërally äpplied ümlaüts have caused tension between governments and their headbanging citizens.


In March 2003, a Casablanca club promoted a triple billing of Moroccan heavy metal bands. Metal fans arrived expecting to see Nekros, Infected Brain and Reborn tear through their sets. Instead, the nine musicians (and five fans) were arrested for "acts capable of undermining the faith of a Muslim" and "possessing objects which infringe morals." Local media accused them of being "Satanists" involved in an international devil-worshipping cult. The judge, who claimed that "normal people go to concerts in a suit and tie," sentenced all 14 men to jail sentences, lasting from one month to a year.

The sentences prompted immediate protests. A benefit concert was organized and 500 people, many wearing black t-shirts with band logos that the judge found detestable, held a demonstration outside the parliament building in Rabat. The case went to appeal and 11 of the 14 men were acquitted. The remaining three had their sentences cut.


More than 2,000 years ago, China built the Great Wall to repel invaders from the north. But it didn't do much good in 2004, when the Mongols attempted a modern-day invasion, bearing not swords, but a hit album. Hurd was touring in support of "I Was Born in Mongolia," their latest collection of Mongolian-pride songs, and planned a concert in Hohhot, the capital of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

The Wall didn't stop Hurd's tour bus, so riot police descended on the college campus where the group was supposed to play, dispersed 2,000+ fans and detained several of them for questioning. The Chinese authorities spent the next few days shutting down Mongolian-language Internet chat forums to keep a tight lid on the whole ordeal.


The Chinese-Soviet split in the 1960s separated Mongolia, a Soviet satellite nation, from Inner Mongolia, a region of China. Inner Mongolia is home to four million ethnic Mongolians (double the number in Mongolia), but they're outnumbered by the 18 million Han Chinese that have migrated there and are separated by both physical and abstract borders from their countrymen in Mongolia. Ethnic minorities always make the Chinese nervous, and Hurd, whose nationalism makes them something like the Mongolian version of Bruce Springsteen, are seen as downright dangerous. Their concerts are raided, music shops that sell their albums are shut down and their CDs and tapes are confiscated from fans. Many Mongolians fear a clampdown on their cultural expression, but Hurd soldiers on, and even played a concerts in the US and Europe last year.


A little over two years ago, the highest Islamic authority in Malaysia up and decided that there should be a ban on black metal"¦sort of. While they decided that the metal subgenre "“ associated with the church-burning hi-jinks of a handful of Norwegian bands "“ was "way against the law" and could "cause listeners to rebel against the country's prevailing religion," the ban is a little confusing to this day. Simply listening to black metal music is not against the law, and the penalties for being in a black metal band or going to a black metal concert weren't clarified. The Malaysian Islamic Development Department, as far as I know, is still working with state religious departments to amend the shariah laws to give power to the government to "act against" those "engaging in black metal culture."

While the specifics are still sort of vague, enforcement started soon after the ban and the government ordered state-run radio and television to play less heavy metal music, and began requiring foreign groups to submit videotapes of performances for approval before playing concerts in Malaysia.


Some people just have bad luck. Take Firas, Faisal, Tony and Marwan, for example. The four Iraqis, joined by a deep love for Metallica and Iron Maiden, formed Acrassicauda in 2001. A mere two years and three shows into their musical career, war came to Baghdad. American forces and Iraqi religious groups, Muslims and Christians, all considered the band bad news. In the US, being in a metal band means complaints about noise, in Morocco, it means arrest, but in war torn Baghdad, it meant death threats and being shot at.

The band, the only heavy metal group in Iraq, held on for as long as they could and played three more shows in Baghdad as the war went on. Firas and Faisal, though, soon joined other war refugees and fled for Syria. In 2004, filmmakers from VBS.TV discovered the band and began filming their documentary, Heavy Metal in Baghdad, which had its U.S. premier yesterday at SXSW. VBS set up a Paypal account on the film's website, so people could make donations to help get the band to a safe place and continue working on their music. Last year, they raised enough money to escape to Turkey, where they continue to live.


In what is probably the most bizarre government crackdown on heavy metal, the Egyptian government, in 1997, executed a series of late night raids and sent the state security police into private homes to arrest 70 people, from 16 to 25 years old, and confiscate posters, CDs, tapes and black t-shirts. The arrestees were fingerprinted, photographed, strip-searched and interrogated with questions like "Do you skin cats?" and "Do you spit on graves?" and "Do you hold pagan sacrifices?"

Two weeks after the arrests, state prosecutors gave up the case for lack of evidence. But months later, the Cairo Times reported that education ministry officials were still sifting through libraries and video collections in private schools for traces of anything that might promote devil worship.


Let's end this on a happy note, shall we? For all the trouble it can get you in, heavy metal is still basically about rocking a killer riff and having a good time, and for all the problems of modern life in Israel, the country is home to one of the Middle East's best loved metal bands. Orphaned Land is the originator of what's become known as "Oriental metal," a blend of Asian and Arabic music and metal.
The band is so beloved in the Middle East that it's possible to find a few Saudi metal heads with Orphaned Land tattoos. Think about that for second. Tattoos are forbidden in Islam, and this Islamic law is strictly enforced in Saudi Arabia. Yet there are Arab men walking around with an Israeli band's logo tattooed on their bodies. It's like Dee Snider said: "You can't stop rock and roll."

Matt Soniak is an intern for mental_floss. You can read his own blog here. And when he's not writing, he dresses like this:

Which Terrestrial Planet?
You Can Sip Coffee and Play Games While This Helmet Scans Your Brain

Brain scanning is a delicate operation, one that typically involves staying very still. Researchers use imaging techniques like magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging to get an idea of how the brain functions and what neurons are being activated, but it's not an easy task. Current scanners are huge, requiring patients to sit unmoving inside them, lest their head movements mess up the data. There may soon be a better way—one that would allow patients to act normally while still getting reliable data.

Researchers from the University of Nottingham in the UK report in Nature that they've developed a prototype brain scanner that can be worn like a helmet, one that can generate reliable data even if the subject moves.

It uses lightweight quantum magnetic-field sensors held against the scalp by a 3D-printed helmet that's custom-made for the patient. For the study, one of the researchers volunteered to be the patient and was fitted with a white plastic helmet that looks kind of like a cross between a Roman Centurion helmet and a Jason Voorhees Halloween mask. She was positioned between two large panels equipped with electromagnetic coils that cancel out the Earth's magnetic field so that it doesn't interfere with the magnetic data picked up from the brain. As long as the patient stayed between the panels, she was free to move—nod her head, stretch, drink coffee, and bounce a ball with a paddle—all while the scanner picked up data about on par with what a traditional scanner (seen below) might gather.

A man sits inside an MEG scanner.

The more flexible scanning system is exciting for a number of reasons, including that it would allow squirmy children to have their brains scanned easily. Since patients can move around, it could measure brain function in more natural situations, while they're moving or socializing, and allow patients with neurodegenerative or developmental disorders to get MEG scans.

The current helmet is just a prototype, and the researchers want to eventually build a more generic design that doesn't require custom fitting.


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