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The Hunting Strategies of Carnivorous Plants

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Not the blood-thirsty Audrey II from Little Shop of Horrors "“ we're talking about the very real plants that feast on insects and invertebrates. Carnivorous plants are usually found in environments with low-nutrient soil, like bogs and swamps, where they thrive on the sunshine and warm temperatures. Contrary to popular belief, carnivorous plants don't derive their energy from their prey, merely nutrients. Especially nitrogen.

The really cool thing about carnivorous plants (aside from the fact that they hunt and devour prey) is the variety of hunting mechanisms they employ. Some of these traps are more complicated than a spy-movie death apparatus. Here are some of the amazing techniques carnivorous plants use to get their fill. [Image courtesy of Playbill.com.]

Pitcher and Pitfall Plants

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Have you have ever had the misfortune of finding an insect flailing around in a glass of your sugary beverage of choice? That's the basic mechanism employed by a pitcher plant. They entice prey into their rolled leaf cavities with the lure of bright pigments and nectar at the bottom of a deep, inescapable pit. The insects are intoxicated by (and then drown in) this liquid, which contains bacteria and enzymes that will eventually dissolve their carcasses. The inner tubes utilize a slippery, hairy or grooved surface to make sure even sober insects can't escape. Forget about rainwater filling the cavity and diluting the digestive juices; most pitcher plants use some sort of umbrella-like contraption to keep water out, usually a flared leaf called an operculum. [Image courtesy of PitcherPlant.org.]

Snap Traps

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In this amazing trap, the convex leaves are covered in triggers that slam shut and become concave when they sense an insect has arrived. Once shut, the lobes of the leaves are stimulated by the struggling insect and grow together to form a stomach. The glands then secrete an enzyme that digests the insect in about ten days. The ever-famous Venus Flytrap is the best example of this vicious hunting style, and there are very few other species that use this technique.

The undirected movement of the leaves in response to touch snapping is a process called thigmonasty (which sounds like a great DJ moniker to me). Just how fast is the process? Well, the Venus Flytrap can close its traps within 100 milliseconds. After digestion, the leaves re-open and can capture another victim, though it's rare for a single trap to catch more than three insects in its lifetime. Each plant has multiple traps, so it never goes hungry. [Image courtesy of MooseysCountryGarden.com.]

Here's a YouTube demonstration:

Bladder and Suction Traps

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I don't particularly like the words bladder or suction, especially when paired with the word trap, but this trap type is incredible. These plants live in the water and use lots of tiny bladders to ensnare dinner. Basically, bladder traps pump ions out from their interiors and use osmosis to create a partial vacuum. If a creature triggers the trap, it is immediately sucked in, along with a bunch of extra water. The plant immediately begins to filter out the water and digest the prey, and it can hunt for more prey as it digests its current catch.

These complicated traps are exclusive to bladderwort plants, which have at least 215 species. Unlike other carnivorous plants, which exclusively eat insects, bladderworts trap water fleas, nematodes, mosquito larvae, small tadpoles and other things you don't want in your swimming water. Despite their gross-looking traps, bladderworts have beautiful flowers that are similar to orchids and snapdragons, only smaller. [Image courtesy of Carnivorous Plants Online.]

Flypaper Traps

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Just as the name indicates, these plants generate super-sticky glue called mucilage to trap insects. Plants cover their attractive leaves with mucilage, which resemble droplets of fresh dew or rain, and then wait for an insect to land, and fall right into their trap.

Sundew plants are a common but fascinating example of these types of plants. Sure, the name sounds warm and pleasant, but it actually refers to the glistening drops of mucilage at the tip of each tentacle that resemble drops of morning dew. Tentacles and mucilage, gross. Once an insect adheres to the plant, the tentacles very slowly move to wrap around and eventually digest the prey.

The butterwort group of carnivorous plants uses broader leaves rather than tentacles to attract prey. The huge, brightly colored leaves are completely covered in mucilage. Once an insect lands on a leaf, the plant creates more mucilage, causing the struggling insect to become encased in the sticky stuff. Other glands on the leaf secrete digestive juices, and the nutrients are absorbed by the plant leaves. [Image courtesy of Wikipedia.]

Lobster-pot Traps

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Think of these plants as the Roach Motels of carnivorous plants: insects check in, but they don't check out. The traps are easy and intriguing to enter, but very difficult to escape due to inward-pointing bristles and spiraling parts. The genlisea group of plants uses traps that have all their carnivorous parts beneath the soil. The trap is basically a pair of thin tubes joined in an inverted 'V' shape, with spiral grooves down their lengths that allow the entrance of soil-dwelling invertebrates. The grooves are lined with inward-pointing hairs that prevent the prey from escaping and instead force them into the apex of the 'V,' where they are slowly digested. [Image courtesy of CarnivorousPlants.org.]

Caroline Donnelly is an occasional contributor to mentalfloss.com. Her last story looked at 7 Famous Phrases Famous People Own.

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10 Witty Facts About The Marx Brothers
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Talented as individuals and magnificent as a team, the Marx Brothers conquered every medium from the vaudeville stage to the silver screen. Today, we’re tipping our hats (and tooting our horns) to Groucho, Harpo, Chico, Zeppo, and Gummo—on the 50th anniversary of Groucho's passing.

1. A RUNAWAY MULE INSPIRED THEM TO TAKE A STAB AT COMEDY.

Julius, Milton, and Arthur Marx originally aspired to be professional singers. In 1907, the boys joined a group called “The Three Nightingales.” Managed by their mother, Minnie, the ensemble performed covers of popular songs in theaters all over the country. As Nightingales, the brothers enjoyed some moderate success, but they might never have found their true calling if it weren’t for an unruly equid. During a 1907 gig at the Nacogdoches Opera House in East Texas, someone interrupted the performance by barging in and shouting “Mule’s loose!” Immediately, the crowd raced out to watch the newly-liberated animal. Back inside, Julius seethed. Furious at having lost the spotlight, he skewered his audience upon their return. “The jackass is the finest flower of Tex-ass!” he shouted, among many other ad-libbed jabs. Rather than boo, the patrons roared with laughter. Word of his wit soon spread and demand for these Marx brothers grew.

2. THEY RECEIVED THEIR STAGE NAMES DURING A POKER GAME.

In May of 1914, the five Marxes were playing cards with standup comedian Art Fisher. Inspired by a popular comic strip character known as “Sherlocko the Monk,” he decided that the boys could use some new nicknames. Leonard’s was a no-brainer. Given his girl-crazy, “chick-chasing” lifestyle, Fisher dubbed him “Chicko” (later, this was shortened to “Chico”). Arthur loved playing the harp and thus became “Harpo.” An affinity for soft gumshoes earned Milton the alias “Gummo.” Finally, Julius was both cynical and often seen wearing a “grouch bag”—wherein he’d store small objects like marbles and candy—around his neck. Thus, “Groucho” was born. For the record, nobody knows how Herbert Marx came to be known as “Zeppo.”

3. GROUCHO WORE HIS TRADEMARK GREASEPAINT MUSTACHE BECAUSE HE HATED MORE REALISTIC MODELS.

Michael Ochs Archives/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Phony, glue-on facial hair can be a pain to remove and reapply, so Groucho would simply paint a ‘stache and some exaggerated eyebrows onto his face. However, the mustache he later rocked as the host of his famous quiz show You Bet Your Life was 100 percent real.

4. HARPO WAS A SELF-TAUGHT HARPIST.

Without any formal training (or the ability to read sheet music), the second-oldest Marx brother developed a unique style that he never stopped improving upon. “Dad really loved playing the harp, and he did it constantly,” his son, Bill Marx, wrote. “Maybe the first multi-tasker ever, he even had a harp in the bathroom so he could play when he sat on the toilet!”

5. THE VERY FIRST MARX BROTHERS MOVIE WAS NEVER RELEASED.

Financed by Groucho, Chico, Harpo, Zeppo, and a handful of other investors, Humor Risk was filmed in 1921. Accounts differ, but most scholars agree that the silent picture—which would have served as the family’s cinematic debut—never saw completion. Despite this, an early screening of the work-in-progress was reportedly held in the Bronx. When Humor Risk failed to impress there, production halted. By Marx Brothers standards, it would’ve been an unusual flick, with Harpo playing a heroic detective opposite a villainous Groucho character.

6. GUMMO AND ZEPPO BECAME TALENT AGENTS.

World War I forced Gummo to quit the stage. Following his return, the veteran decided that performing was no longer for him and instead started a raincoat business. Zeppo—the youngest brother—then assumed Gummo’s role as the troupe’s straight-talking foil. A brilliant businessman, Zeppo eventually break away to found the talent agency Zeppo Marx Inc., which grew into Hollywood’s third-largest, representing superstars like Clark Gable, Lucille Ball, and—of course—the other three Marx Brothers. Gummo, who joined the company in 1935, was charged with handling Groucho, Harpo, and Chico’s needs.

7. CHICO ONCE LAUNCHED A BIG BAND GROUP.

Chico took advantage of an extended break between Marx brothers movies to realize a lifelong dream. A few months before The Big Store hit cinemas in 1941, he co-founded the Chico Marx Orchestra: a swinging jazz band that lasted until July of 1943. Short-lived as the group was, however, it still managed to recruit some amazing talent—including singer/composer Mel Tormé, who would go on to help write the “The Christmas Song (Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire)” in 1945.

8. THEY TESTED OUT NEW MATERIAL FOR A NIGHT AT THE OPERA IN FRONT OF LIVE AUDIENCES.

With the script still being drafted, MGM made the inspired choice to let the brothers perform key scenes in such places as Seattle, Salt Lake City, and San Francisco. Once a given joke was made, the Marxes meticulously timed the ensuing laughter, which let them know exactly how much silence to leave after repeating the gag on film. According to Harpo, this had the added benefit of shortening A Night at the Opera’s production period. “We didn’t have to rehearse,” he explained. “[We just] got onto the set and let the cameras roll.”

9. GROUCHO TEMPORARILY HOSTED THE TONIGHT SHOW.

Jack Paar bid the job farewell on March 29, 1962. Months before their star’s departure, NBC offered Paar’s Tonight Show seat to Groucho, who had established himself as a razor-sharp, well-liked host during You Bet Your Life’s 14-year run. Though Marx turned the network down, he later served as a guest host for two weeks while Johnny Carson prepared to take over the gig. When Carson finally made his Tonight Show debut on October 1, it was Groucho who introduced him.

10. SPY MAGAZINE USED A MARX BROTHERS MOVIE TO PRANK U.S. CONGRESSMEN.

Duck Soup takes place in Freedonia, a fictional country over which the eccentric Rufus T. Firefly (Groucho) presides. In 1993, 60 years after the movie’s release, this imaginary nation made headlines by embarrassing some real-life politicians. Staffers from Spy got in touch with around 20 freshmen in the House of Representatives, asking some variation on the question “Do you approve of what we’re doing to stop ethnic cleansing in Freedonia?” A few lawmakers took the bait. Representative Corrine Brown (D-Florida) professed to approve of America’s presence in Freedonia, saying “I think all of those situations are very, very sad, and I just think we need to take action to assist the people.” Across the aisle, Steve Buyer (R-Indiana) concurred. “Yeah,” he said, “it’s a different situation than the Middle East.”

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Amazon
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Smart Shopping
Get This Weekend's Best Amazon Deals
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Amazon

As a recurring feature, our team combs the Web and shares some amazing Amazon deals we’ve turned up. Here’s what caught our eye today, August 19.

Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers, including Amazon, and may receive a small percentage of any sale. But we only get commission on items you buy and don’t return, so we’re only happy if you’re happy. Good luck deal hunting!

GADGETS, TOYS, AND MEDIA

Emoi Bluetooth Speaker, LED Multicolor Silicone Lamp, iPhone Wireless Portable Speaker w/ Enhanced Bass, Speakerphone, Romantic Music Night Light for Bedroom Baby Room, BPA-Free, APP Control.(H0017W) for $39.99 (list price $46.99)

Appmax IPhone 6 6S Flowing Liquid Case Swimming Magic Maze Transparent Hard 3d Liquid Case Cover Shell for Iphone 6 & Iphone 6S [4.7 Inch] (Blue Maze) for $5.88 (list price $9.99)

Desktop Cable Organizer and Cable Holder for Cable Management of USB Cables, Power Cords & Charging Cables - Bundled with 2 Bonus Cable Clip (Blue) for $12.87 (list price $19.98)

Distil Union Wally Junior - Slim, Secret Leather Wallet and Card Holder for Smartphones, the Only Leather Stick-On Wallet with Pull-Tab for $20.99 (list price $24.99)

Crosley CR7007A-MA Patriarch Turntable with Radio, CD Player and Aux-In (Mahogany) for $103.00 (list price $169.95)

Withings Activité Sapphire - Activity and Sleep Tracking Watch - Swiss-Made for $329.98 (list price $450.00)

Satechi Bluetooth Button Series (Media Button) for iPhone 7 Plus/7/6 Plus/6/5S/5C, iPad Pro/Air 2/Air/Mini/3/2/1, Samsung Galaxy S8/S7/S6,Note 4/Edge/Pro/Tab Pro, Google Nexus 9 and more for $29.99 (list price $39.99)

TaoTronics Bluetooth Headphones, Sweatproof Wireless In Ear Earbuds, Sports Magnetic Earphones with Built in Mic (IPX5 Splash Proof Rating, aptX Stereo, Up to 7 Hours of Talk Time, Ceramic Antenna) for $25.99 (list price $69.99)

Anker SoundCore 2 Portable Bluetooth Speaker with Better Bass, 24-Hour Playtime, 66ft Bluetooth Range, IPX5 Water Resistance & Built-in Mic — Dual-Driver Wireless Speaker for iPhone, Samsung etc for $33.59 (list price $89.99)

New Matter MOD-t Desktop 3D Printer | Built-In WiFi, Easy to Use, Safe and Quiet for $269.10 (list price $399.00)

Philips FLEX BT2000A/37 Wireless Portable Bluetooth Speaker (Blue/Green) for $23.64 (list price $39.99)

KITCHEN

Le Creuset Signature Iron Handle Skillet, 11-3/4-Inch, Cerise (Cherry Red) for $199.95 (list price $260.00)

Le Creuset Enamel-on-Steel Whistling 1-4/5-Quart Teakettle, Marseille Blue for $99.95 (list price $130.00)

Biobu [by Ekobo] Bambino Kid Set in Gift Box, Lime/Lagoon/Smoke/White for $22.99 (list price $25.00)

The Keyboard Waffle Iron for $54.75 (list price $69.99)

Sagaform 5016554 Spice/Herb Storage Bottles with Oak Stoppers for $24.95 (list price $27.00)

MatchaDNA Handcrafted Matcha Tea Bowl - White for $16.89 (list price $29.99)

Luxtea Glass Teapot 25oz with Stainless Steel Infuser and Lid for Blooming and Loose Leaf Tea (25oz) for $14.99 (list price $19.99)

Fred PIZZA PEDDLER Monkey Unicycle Pizza Wheel for $12.67 (list price $15.66)

Brilliant - Mason Jar Drink Dispenser with Stainless Steel Spigot and Cork Cover, 1 Gallon (4L) for $35.00 (list price $39.95)

Umbra Buddy Paper Towel Holder, Black for $19.99 (list price $25.00)

Curva Artisan Series Double Wall Beverage Glasses and Tumblers - Unique 8 oz Thermo Insulated Drinking Glasses, Set of 4 for $28.95 (list price $38.95)

Dinosaur Cookie Cutter Set - 3 Piece - T-Rex, Triceratops, and Stegosaurus – Ann Clark – US Tin Plated Steel for $7.99 (list price $9.49)

InterDesign Axis Over the Cabinet Kitchen Storage Organizer Basket for Aluminum Foil, Sandwich Bags, Cleaning Supplies - 2-Tier, Chrome for $13.29 (list price $17.99)

HOME

Umbra Trigg Hanging Planter Vase & Geometric Wall Decor Container - Great For Succulent Plants, Air Plant, Mini Cactus, Faux Plants and More, Concrete Resin/Copper (Set of 2) for $22.56 (list price $25.00)

Safavieh American Homes Collection Carrie Side Storage Side Table, Red for $101.69 (list price $122.20)

Vornado VFAN Vintage Air Circulator Fan, Vintage White for $99.81 (list price $119.99)

Bronze Dimmable Accent Table Lamp with 1 Vintage Edison Style Bulb, Plugin, Brooklyn Bulb Co. Hoyt Collection, Inset Switch, ETL Listed for $69.99 (list price $129.00)

Byredo - Burning Rose Candle for $68.24 (list price $95.00)

Honey-Can-Do SHO-02222 4-Tier Bamboo Entryway Organizer for $55.87 (list price $90.99)

Levpet 13-Gallon Touch-Free Trash Can, Stainless-Steel for $48.35 (list price $85.99)

Saganizer Hamper with Wheels Rolling Cart Heavy Duty Triple Laundry Organizer/Sorter, Chrome/White for $37.99 (list price $49.99)

EWEI'S HomeWares 3 Floating U Shelves, Espresso Finish for $15.99 (list price $20.50)

Jill Rosenwald by Surya POUF-48 Hand Made 100% Wool Tan 18" x 18" x 18" Pouf for $225.00 (list price $303.00)

Tosca Laundry Basket Size: 15.2" H x 16.3" W x 12.2" D for $50.64 (list price $53.33)

Deco 79 68135 Metal Bookend Pair for $28.42 (list price $57.00)

OFFICE, SCHOOL, AND CRAFTS

WCloud Desk Organizer Wood Office Supply Book Desktop Small Table Shelf Bamboo for $28.99 (list price $49.90)

mDesign Office and Desk Storage, File Folder and Notebook Organizer - Clear for $11.99 (list price $14.99)

Northbooks Notebook / Journal (5 Pack), 96 College Ruled Pages, Acid Free Sheets, 5x8 | Made In The USA for $26.37 (list price $39.99)

Exposed Bulb Accent Lamp, Mahogany Wood, Dimmable, E26, 60W, 120V, Plug-In, Includes Edison Filament Bulb, ETL Listed for $49.00 (list price $114.00)

Fred DESK DONUT Push Pin Holder for $12.99 (list price $14.99)

Tomons Wood Swing Arm Desk Lamp, Designer Table Lamp, Reading Lights, Study Lamp, Work Lamp, Office Lamp, Bedside Nightstand Lamp - Black for $29.99 (list price $39.99)

X-ACTO SchoolPro Classroom Electric Pencil Sharpener, Heavy Duty, Blue/Grey for $21.94 (list price $29.98)

Over the Door Magazine Storage Pockets, Wall Door Closet Hanging Storage bag organizer, (5 Pockets-Nature) for $7.99 (list price $8.99)

Officemate Binder Clips, Gold, Assorted Sizes, 30 Clips in Tub (31022) for $3.70 (list price $5.88)

Officemate Heavy Duty Magnets, Assorted Sizes and Colors, 30 per Tub (92501) for $9.78 (list price $15.79)

Swingline Paper Trimmer / Cutter, Guillotine, 12" Cut Length, 10 Sheets Capacity, ClassicCut Lite (9312) for $29.76 (list price $31.25)

Fountain Pen with Ink Refill Converter and Gift Box - Timeless Classics Collection - Executive Writing Signature Calligraphy Pens Set For Standard Cartridges (Chocolate Espresso Brown) for $39.97 (list price $59.99)

HEALTH AND BEAUTY

daisi Facial Cleansing Portable Travel Brush Set | Face Exfoliator for Softer Skin | Rechargeable Waterproof Facial Brush Removes Make-Up, Oil & Dead Skin | 3 Soft Non-Sonic Brushes | For Men & Women for $17.95 (list price $35.00)

Majestic Pure Therapeutic Melaleuca Alternifolia Tea Tree Oil With Dropper, 4 fl. Oz for $13.95 (list price $29.50)

Dukes Daily Age-Defying Facial Moisturizer Cream 4oz - Anti-Aging Lotion - Day/Night Face Wash Fuel for Men – All Organic for $19.99 (list price $45.00)

Facial Moisturizer, Organic and Natural Face Moisturizing Cream for Sensitive, Oily or Severely Dry Skin - Anti-Aging and Anti-Wrinkle, for Women and Men. By Christina Moss Naturals. for $25.99 (list price $39.99)

Kyoku For Men Exfoliating Facial Scrub | Kyoku For Men Face Scrub, A Gentle Acne Treatment For Men (3.4oz) for $12.14 (list price $18.00)

Activated Charcoal Teeth Whitening Toothpaste - Made in USA – REMOVES BAD BREATH and TOOTH STAINS - Best Natural Toothpaste for Herbal Decay Treatment - Mint flavor. for $10.00 (list price $19.99)

Keiby Citom Premium Nail Clipper Set of 10pcs with Leather Case - Professional Stainless Steel Grooming Kit Manicure & Pedicure Set for Travel for $14.98 (list price $29.99)

Antifungal Spirulina Body Scrub by Buena Skin | 100% Natural, Antibacterial with Green Algae, Dead Sea Salts and Vitamin E 12 oz. for $13.96 (list price $19.95)

Gentleman Jon Deluxe Wet Shave Kit | Includes 8 Items: Safety Razor, Badger Hair Brush, Shave Stand, Canvas & Leather Dopp Kit, Alum Block, Shave Soap, Stainless Steel Bowl and Astra Razor Blades for $75.00 (list price $95.00)

VAV 1875W Lightweight Negative Ions Hair Blow Dryer with Diffuser Concentrator Nozzle 2 Speed and 3 Heat Settings Cool shot button DC Motor Black for $35.99 (list price $98.99)

InterDesign Clarity Cosmetic Organizer for Vanity Cabinet to Hold Makeup, Beauty Products - 3 Drawer Slim, Clear for $21.99 (list price $23.99)

Bath Body Brush Boar Bristles Exfoliating Body Massager with Long Wooden Handle for Dry Brushing and Shower for $7.69 (list price $11.99)

OUTDOORS, GARDEN, AND SPORTS

SE CC4580 MilitaryLensatic/Prismatic Sighting Compass with Pouch for $7.90 (list price $14.95)

S-ZONE Canvas DSLR SLR Camera Shoulder Bag Backpack Rucksack Bag With Waterproof Rain Cover For Sony Canon Nikon Olympus for $39.99 (list price $58.99)

Hydration Backpack Tactical Rucksack Run-pack with 3 Liter/100 oz Reservoirs Water Bladder Bag for Hiking, Running, Camping, Climbing, Cycling, Walking, Hunting (Black) for $28.99 (list price $69.99)

Dependable Wiregate Hammock Carabiner Clips Made From Aircraft Grade 7075 Aluminum Alloy - 2 or 4 Pack Set- Great For Camping, Hammocks, Hiking & Backpacking- Lightweight - 4 Pack Green & Silver) for $16.90 (list price $21.90)

OZERO Garden Gloves, Deerskin Snug-fit Leather Work Glove with Touch Screen Fingertips - Sweat-absorbent & Light-Weight for Caring Pets/Yard/Automotive Work/Sports - Fit for Women & Men (Yellow,M) for $10.99 (list price $18.00)

Legit Camping - Double Hammock - Lightweight Parachute Portable Hammocks for Hiking , Travel , Backpacking , Beach , Yard . Gear Includes Nylon Straps & Steel Carabiners (Grey/Sea Green) for $27.95 (list price $49.97)

Coreal 35L Large Lightweight Collapsible Packable Travel Hiking Backpack Trekking Bag Red for $19.89 (list price $25.99)

MiniPresso GR Espresso Maker for $57.95 (list price $64.99)

AUTOSPOUT Straw Striker Chill, 10oz, Cherry Blossom for $10.39 (list price $15.99)

TOOLS

VeloChampion MLT10 Multi Tool for $14.95 (list price $19.95)

DeWalt DWHT51054 20 Oz. Rip Claw Hammer for $27.92 (list price $30.76)

Magnelex 22-in-1 Multitool with Attachable Bits and Sheath, Stainless Steel, Black for $19.90 (list price $59.90)

DEW Emergency Survival Kit Travel Outdoor Multifunctional Bracelet, Survival Gear Kit Paracord Bracelet with Fire Starter Scraper, Cutting Tool, Whistle, Compass (Green) for $4.99 (list price $14.99)

Southwire Tools & Equipment POUCH4 Leather Tool Pouch for $15.28 (list price $17.98)

Southwire Tools & Equipment 58993940 S5N1 5-in-1 Long Nose Multi-Tool Pliers, Black/Yellow for $20.56 (list price $32.81)

Dremel 8220-1/28 12-Volt Max Cordless Rotary Tool for $74.25 (list price $99.00)

Dremel 2200-01 Versa Flame Multi-Function Butane Torch for $39.00 (list price $42.99)

Plus Pen Style Compact Twiggy Scissors with Cover, White (34609) for $4.36 (list price $5.99)

Southwire Tools & Equipment SD12N1 12-In-1 Multi-Bit Screwdriver for $13.97 (list price $18.97)

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