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4 Truths About Ninjas Chuck Norris Doesn't Want You to Know

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1. They weren't particularly effective as assassins.

Thanks to the precautions warlords took to protect against evil ninja assassins (building homes with counterbalanced floors that squeaked, hiring bodyguards to watch them sleep, and requiring every member of their households to wear pants that dragged along the floor so walking quietly became impossible), there aren't many documented cases of ninjas pulling off successful assassinations. Not to say they didn't try. In the 17th century, for instance, General Oda Nobunaga was surprised by three cannon-wielding ninjas who tried to blow him away, but missed.

2. The first one was a cross-dresser.

books.jpgOne of the first recorded uses of Sun Tzu's sneaky tactics dates to the 1st century CE. The story describes how a prince named Yamato killed a rival lord named Torishi-kaya. Disguised as a girl, Yamato attends a banquet where, conveniently, his enemy gets a little crush on him. Invited to sit at the lord's table (just like high school), Yamato plays coy and waits until his rival is drunk before stabbing the man in the back (again, just like high school).

3. They rely on a Chinese guidebook.

While ninja assassins were almost all Japanese, ninja philosophy is a Chinese invention. It comes from The Art of War, the battle guide written by Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 4th or 5th century BCE.

4. The Japanese didn't like them half as much as your little brother does.

AirNinja.jpg In the eternal debate over which is cooler—pirates or ninjas—most ancient Japanese would vote squarely with the swashbucklers. The idea of devious, back-stabbing guerrillas who attacked in secrecy conflicted with the Japanese ideal of the brave, loyal Samurai. Over the centuries, warlords came to accept the necessity of covert operations, but only grudgingly.

This list was reprinted from an old issue of mental_floss magazine. Make our editors happy by subscribing today.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Name the Author Based on the Character
May 23, 2017
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