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Feel Art Again: 'The Scream'

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Munch - Scream1.jpg
Back in October, we covered the most famous smile in history, the "Mona Lisa." Today let's take a look at the most famous scream in history, Edvard Munch's "Skrik" ("The Scream"), in honor of the artist's birthday tomorrow.

1. Edvard Munch's family suffered many tragedies, including the death of their mother and an older sister, Sophie, of tuberculosis. Their father also died young and the only sibling to marry died a few months after the wedding. A younger sister, Laura Catherine, was diagnosed with manic depression at an early age and was in a mental hospital near the setting of "Scream" at the time Munch painted it.

2. The painting was inspired by a walk Munch took with friends, during which he saw the sun setting in a blood red sky, possibly a result of the volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1883. Munch "sensed an infinite scream passing through nature." Some theories hold that the person in the foreground is the artist, not screaming, but protecting himself from Nature's scream.

3. Robert Rosenblum, a Munch scholar, suggested in 1978 that Munch based the "Scream" figure on a Peruvian mummy that he may have seen at the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This same mummy served as the model for figures in two paintings by Paul Gauguin, a friend of Munch. An Italian anthropologist, though, believes the figure may have been based on a mummy at Florence's Museum of Natural History, as there is a stronger resemblance between the two.

4. Four versions of the painting were created by Munch, as well as a lithograph that he created so the image could be reproduced in reviews. One of the originals was stolen from the National Gallery in Norway on the day the 1994 Winter Olympics opened in Lillehammer. It was recovered about four months later in a sting operation. A second original, along with Munch's "Madonna," was stolen at gunpoint from the Munch Museum in 2004. The paintings were recovered a year later, after multiple offers of rewards, including an offer from Masterfoods USA of 2 million M&Ms.

5. In 1892, Munch was invited by the Union of Berlin Artists to exhibit at its November exhibition, but his paintings evoked bitter controversy, and the exhibition closed after one week. A little more than thirty years later, the Nazis labeled Munch's work "degenerate art" and removed it from all the German museums. Munch was deeply hurt, because he had come to think of Germany as his second homeland.

6. The Norwegian 1,000 Kroner note features Edvard Munch, along with pictures inspired by his artwork.

'Feel Art Again' appears every Tuesday and Thursday.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Opening Ceremony
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These $425 Jeans Can Turn Into Jorts
May 19, 2017
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Opening Ceremony

Modular clothing used to consist of something simple, like a reversible jacket. Today, it’s a $425 pair of detachable jeans.

Apparel retailer Opening Ceremony recently debuted a pair of “2 in 1 Y/Project” trousers that look fairly peculiar. The legs are held to the crotch by a pair of loops, creating a disjointed C-3PO effect. Undo the loops and you can now remove the legs entirely, leaving a pair of jean shorts in their wake. The result goes from this:

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Opening Ceremony

To this:

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Opening Ceremony

The company also offers a slightly different cut with button tabs in black for $460. If these aren’t audacious enough for you, the Y/Project line includes jumpsuits with removable legs and garter-equipped jeans.

[h/t Mashable]

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