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On chains, and some weather hijinks

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That's the beauty of -12º F. Within thirty seconds, the air was clear again, and the next shot is the same stern five minutes later.

I love getting boat shots from my father, and I applaud any email interaction from my mother; my parents, like so many I know, were charmingly late to set about with "the email." So it's just plain cute to get emails from them, especially when I see they've mustered the exuberance necessary to fire off a couple forwards. I only get chain forwards from people related to me; it's an acceptable familial tariff, and how else would I keep abreast of colloquial humor, pet fashion, and urban legends?

I remember a time (antes de email & circa Christopher Pike's Chain Letter 1 & 2) when I took the onus of chains as seriously as I took all my grade school friends' sworn secrets (wasn't discretion--or its semblance--the major prereq of young friendships?): I would not tell, and I would absolutely not break the chain. Now I blithely read them and move on with my life. Maybe I'm a cynic and no fun, but I just don't do chain emails or chain myspace posts other chained correspondence. Ok maybe the caveat would be a missing child alert, but that's about it. We've touch on chains before (including rehab resources), but do you have chain-addicts in your life, or are you an active or recovering chain-keeper?

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Is Your Town in the Path of the Next Total Solar Eclipse?
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iStock

On August 21, people across the continental U.S. got to witness a spectacular total solar eclipse. From Oregon to South Carolina, those in the path of totality saw the world go dark as the Moon completely covered the Sun. Even people hundreds of miles away from the path were able to see a partial eclipse.

The highly anticipated event was rare because of the path it carved across the U.S. Total solar eclipses happen often enough, but 2017 was the first year one has been visible from the contiguous U.S. since 1979.

If you didn’t get to see the full eclipse this year, you’ll get a second chance—as long as you’re willing to wait a few years. The next total eclipse to cross the continental U.S. will occur in 2024, traversing parts of Mexico before heading up through Texas, across the Midwest, and past Buffalo and northwestern New England before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

Future eclipses
Lucy Quintanilla

On April 8, 2024, cities like Dallas and Killeen, Texas; Hot Springs, Arkansas; Poplar Bluff, Missouri; Bloomington, Indiana; Cleveland, and Buffalo will get to witness the beauty of the solar corona, an event that dedicated eclipse chasers—who travel the world in pursuit of eclipse experiences—alternately describe as terrifying, weird, thrilling, mind-blowing, life-changing, and not entirely different from taking psychedelics.

See if you'll be in the path of totality come 2024 here. If you're going to travel to see it, you’d be smart to book your accommodations well in advance, since lodging in cities in the path of totality can book up years before the event. And this time, don't forget the eclipse glasses.

If you won’t be in the Midwest or New England in 2024, you’ll have another chance at an American eclipse viewing eventually. In August 2045, a total solar eclipse will journey across northern California through the continental U.S. and down to Florida and the Caribbean, passing over major cities from Reno to Miami along the way.

If you don’t want to wait until then, take a look at this infographic to see where across the world you can find an eclipse sooner. But our recommendation? Book yourself a room in Hot Springs for six years from now and prepare to take a rejuvenating soak while you watch.

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The Coolest Meteorological Term You'll Learn This Week
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Two tropical cyclones orbiting around each other in the northwestern Pacific Ocean on July 25, 2017.
RAMMB/CIRA

What happens when two hurricanes start to invade each other's personal space? It's easy to picture the two hurricanes merging into one megastorm that tears across the ocean with twice the fury of a normal storm, but what really happens is less dramatic (although it is a beautiful sight to spy on with satellites). Two cyclones that get too close to one another start to feel the pull of a force called the Fujiwhara Effect, a term that's all the rage in weather news these days.

The Fujiwhara Effect occurs when two cyclones track close enough to each other that the storms begin orbiting around one another. The counterclockwise winds spiraling around each cyclone force them to participate in what amounts to the world's largest game of Ring Around the Rosie. The effect is named after Sakuhai Fujiwhara, a meteorologist who studied this phenomenon back in the early 1900s.

The extent to which storms are affected by the Fujiwhara Effect depends on the strength and size of each system. The effect will be more pronounced in storms of equal size and strength; when a large and small storm get too close, the bigger storm takes over and sometimes even absorbs its lesser counterpart. The effect can have a major impact on track forecasts for each cyclone. The future of a storm completely depends on its new track and the environment it suddenly finds itself swirling into once the storms break up and go their separate ways.

We've seen some pretty incredible examples of the Fujiwhara Effect over the years. Hurricane Sandy's unusual track was in large part the result of the Fujiwhara Effect; the hurricane was pulled west into New Jersey by a low-pressure system over the southeastern United States. The process is especially common in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, where typhoons fire up in rapid succession during the warmer months. We saw a great example of the effect just this summer when two tropical cyclones interacted with each other a few thousand miles off the coast of Japan.

Weather Channel meteorologist Stu Ostro pulled a fantastic animated loop of two tropical cyclones named Noru and Kulap swirling around each other at the end of July 2017 a few thousand miles off the coast of Japan.

Typhoon Noru was a small but powerful storm that formed at about the same latitude as Kulap, a larger but much weaker storm off to Noru's east. While both storms were moving west in the general direction of Japan, Kulap moved much faster than Noru and eventually caught up with the latter storm. The Fujiwhara Effect caused Typhoon Noru to stop dead in its tracks, completely reverse its course and eventually perform a giant loop over the ocean. Typhoon Noru quickly strengthened and became the dominant cyclone; the storm absorbed Kulap and went on to become a super typhoon with maximum winds equivalent to a category 5 hurricane.

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