CLOSE

38 Essential facts about Frankenstein (Fact #37: He's on a postage stamp?!)

Halloween is upon us... and there's no better time to take a look at one of the most famous horror stories in literary history: Frankenstein!

In this two-part article, we'll discover some truths (and dispel some myths) about Dr. Frankenstein and The Monster. Tomorrow, in Part II, we'll focus on Mary Shelley's novel. Today, everything else!

ON FILM:

Q: When was the Frankenstein story first made into a film?

A: Way back in 1910, when the Thomas Edison Company produced a one-reel film simply titled Frankenstein. The original negative was apparently destroyed in a fire in 1914, and the movie was thought to be forever lost. More than 60 years later, Wisconsin film collector Al Dettlaff discovered that his archives included a nitrate print of the rare movie.

And here it is.

Frankenstein

Honestly, this film has it all. Suspense, special effects, overacting... and this was 1910! Nearly a century later, how far has Hollywood really come?

Q: Did Thomas Edison himself produce, direct, or have other involvement in the film?

A: No, other than being owner of the company that made it. Frankenstein was filmed at Edison Studios in the Bronx, New York.

The Three Faces of FrankensteinQ: Which horror movie legend played The Monster: Lon Chaney Jr., Boris Karloff, or Bela Lugosi?

A: The answer is "yes." Karloff played the character in the famous 1931 film Frankenstein, while Chaney took the role for The Ghost of Frankenstein and Lugosi played it in Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man.

Q: Who played Victor Frankenstein and Igor in the classic 1931 film?

A: Nobody. Those characters didn't exist in that film. The doctor's name was Henry Frankenstein (although he's never referred to as "doctor"), and his assistant was Fritz. Victor Moritz was the name of the doctor's friend (who seemed much more interested in Elizabeth than Henry).

Q: So when did Igor come about?

A: Ygor, as he's properly known, first appeared in the 1939 sequel Son of Frankenstein.

Beatles references, Blackenstein, Playgirl magazine and why everyone was scared of Franken Berry cereal, all after the jump...

Q: What are the official sequels to the 1931 Frankenstein film?

A: The "Universal Studios series," as it's known, runs as follows:

Frankenstein (1931)
Bride of Frankenstein (1935)
Son of Frankenstein (1939)
The Ghost of Frankenstein (1942)
Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man (1943)
House of Frankenstein (1944)

And because they're Universal films from the same era that also feature The Monster, some lists also include:

House of Dracula (1945)
Abbott & Costello Meet Frankenstein (1948)

crosses.jpgQ: Is there any imagery to watch out for in the 1931 film?

A: Absolutely. Check out the crosses in the graveyard at the beginning of the story; compare them to the windmill at the end (and notice how Henry falls on one of them). The "dancing skeleton" in the surgical theater seems to shadow what's to come. When Henry finally leaves his laboratory to spend time with Elizabeth, he tells her, "it's like heaven being with you again" - perhaps the afterlife that he's denied the bodies he's culled for his experiments. And speaking of those bodies: while Henry's not hesitant to disturb the dead, he's not willing to kill. When it's suggested that he destory his monster, he calls it "murder."

Q: Who brought The Monster "to life" in 3D?

A: Well, there are two answers to this question. View-Master did in 1976 with a series of three reels. More famously, Andy Warhol did in his three-dimensional feature film, Flesh for Frankenstein. [Author's Note: A friend and I saw this film in a theater in downtown Athens, Georgia, in the early 1980s. We were the only two in the place, and the only thing I remember about it is some guy's liver at the end of a long pole, sticking in your face. Ew.]

Q: How is The Monster related to another towering menace, Darth Vader?

A: David Prowse, the British weightlifter who was the man inside the Darth Vader suit in the original Star Wars film trilogy, also portrayed The Monster in three films, including 1967's Casino Royale.

Q: In what year was the feature film Frankenstein 1970 released?

A: 1958, of course.

Q: And in what year was the feature film Frankenstein '80 released?

A: 1972, naturally.

Q: Finally, in what year was the feature film Frankenstein '90 released?

A: 1984. Duh.

Q: Who portrayed The Monster on film, and went on to pose nude for Playgirl?

A: Gary Conway. His first film role was as The Monster in 1957's I Was a Teenage Frankenstein. (He lied, he was 21.) He became a well-known TV star, appearing on Burke's Law and Land of the Giants in the 1960s, and then went nude before the camera as the centerfold in a 1973 issue of Playgirl.

BlackensteinQ: There was Blacula... why wasn't there Blackenstein?

A: Actually, there was. The 1973 film told an updated version of the tale, featuring a paraplegic Vietnam vet who was reconstructed into The Monster.

Q: What 1966 movie was offered to theaters as a double-feature with Jesse James Meets Frankenstein's Daughter?

A: Billy the Kid vs. Dracula. Yes, really.

Q: What late vocalist appeared in 1990's Frankenstein Unbound?

A: INXS's Michael Hutchence, in the role of Percy Shelley.

Q: What twist on the Frankenstein story has earned more than $150 million at the box office, almost all of it in the years following its 1975 release?

A: The Rocky Horror Picture Show. In the film, a quirky doctor named Frank N. Furter (Tim Curry) brings his creature (Rocky) to life. Susan Sarandon, Barry Bostwick and Richard O'Brien (who wrote the story and played Riff-Raff) join up to sing "Over at the Frankenstein Place."

Q: What is the Kevin Bacon Number of the most famous Monster, Boris Karloff?

A: Two. Karloff appeared in The Venetian Affair (1967) with Ed Asner, who appeared in JFK (1991) with Kevin Bacon. (Asner is best known for his role as Lou Grant on TV's The Mary Tyler Moore Show.)

MariaQ: What famous scene was initially cut from the 1931 Frankenstein film because it was deemed too gruesome?

A: The one where a confused Monster hurls little Maria into the water. At the beginning of the segment, The Monster joins the young girl in throwing flowers into a pond, but after running out of flowers, the baffled creature hurls Maria into the water, and then runs away when he sees that she doesn't float like the flowers did. Boris Karloff asked that the scene be removed.

Q: What's the most humorous takeoff on the Frankenstein story?

A: Without question, it would be Mel Brooks' 1974 film Young Frankenstein. Enjoy some interviews and outtakes here and here.

TV/ANIMATION:

Q: Franklin 'Frank' Frankenstein was a member of what short-lived cartoon band of the 1970s?

A: The Groovie Goolies. The fictional music group joined Sabrina, the Teenage Witch on an animated series before eventually getting their own show. An album was also released in an attempt to cash in on the show's success.

Q: What actor portrayed both a "serious" Monster in Frankenstein 1970 and a darned goofy one on the sitcom Monster Squad?

A: Mike Lane. The six-foot, eight-inch actor was a natural to portray Frank N. Stein in the (mercifully) short-lived 1976 TV series Monster Squad, about three wax museum horror figures that came to life. In case you ever wondered what Fred Grandy did before The Love Boat came along, now you know.

Q: In Yellow Submarine, which member of The Beatles drank a potion and transformed from The Monster into his "normal" self?

A: John Lennon.

Frankenlennon

~ ...and that's how Frankie baby was born ~Q: How did the 1960s sitcom The Munsters escape the legal wrath of Universal Studios over the use of a Frankenstein's Monster-like character (Herman Munster)?

A: Because the TV show was a Universal production. Convenient, eh? It's a wonder Fred Gwynne lasted as long as he did (two seasons) in his role as Fred Munster. Not only did the makeup take three hours to apply every morning, but the costume weighed 40 pounds and caused him a considerable amount of back pain.

Q: What type of creature was Hanna-Barbera's Frankenstein Junior?

A: Oddly, a crime-fighting robot. Ted Cassidy (The Addams Family's Lurch) voiced the character, with Dick Beals (Davey of Davey & Goliath) as his young inventor, Buzz Conroy. The characters appeared in a short-lived mid-1960s cartoon series titled Frankenstein Jr. and the Impossibles.

Here's a quick clip.

Franken BerryQ: Who voiced Franken Berry in the cereal's original animated commercials?

A: Bob McFadden, the late performer who lent his pipes to dozens of cartoon and commercial characters over the years. The elderly-sounding voice that, for many years, provided the tagline "Pepperidge Farm remembers"? It was his. He also talked for the parrot who cried "Ring around the collar!" in the long-running commercial for Wisk laundry detergent.

Here's a trio of 1970s TV commercials, beginning with the introduction of Franken Berry. (If you're a cereal hound, you might enjoy our recent cereal quiz, Spoon Candy.)

Q: What other TV commercials have featured The Monster?

A: There have been dozens. Here are a few of our favorites:

Twix
Shasta
Teddy Ruxpin
Volkswagen
Pepsi
Radio Shack
and, yes, even Osteo Bi-Flex

IN SONG:

Back Off BoogalooQ: Frankenstein appeared in the promotional video (and on the picture sleeve) of what Ringo Starr single?

A: "Back Off Boogaloo." Enjoy the video here (or at least pretend you did).

Q: How did Edgar Winter's instrumental hit "Frankenstein" earn its name?

A: Because it was spliced together from many, many bits of tape that Winter had recorded himself, playing various instruments.

While this video shows The Edgar Winter Group performing the song live, Ed played all the instruments himself for the studio cut.

Q: What rocker called his signature red patchwork guitar "Frankenstein"?

A: Eddie Van Halen. (See if you can spot it "“ and other signature rock instruments "“ in our A Few Strings Attached quiz.)

Q: What classic rock hit was inspired by a scene in the Mel Brooks film Young Frankenstein?

A: Aerosmith's "Walk This Way." Steven Tyler revealed that the band saw the film late one evening after a recording session for the Toys in the Attic album. He was inspired by a gag scene where Igor prompts Dr. Frankenstein to "walk this way" and then shuffles along (which the doctor mimics). Tyler liked the phrase, and he and Joe Perry used it as the title of what became one of the band's best-known songs.

Q: What Halloween song was made into a Frankenstein movie in 1995?

A: "Monster Mash." And let me tell you, this movie has everything. Bobby 'Boris' Pickett (who sang the hit tune "Monster Mash") as Dr. Frankenstein. John "˜The Cryptkeeper' Kassir as Igor. Candace Cameron dressed up like Shakespeare's Juliet. A Count-and-Countess Dracula. Choreographed dancing. Jimmie "˜J.J.' Walker. And, yes, Elvis. Why this movie is not out on DVD is indeed a mystery.

Q: What vocalist sometimes returned to stage for an encore on the shoulders of a roadie dressed as Frankenstein's Monster?

A: Freddie Mercury of Queen. His song "Bicycle Race" from the 1978 Jazz album included references to many pop culture characters (including Superman and Star Wars) and characters from these films were also used as fodder for the role.
Other musical acts have made reference to the character, include Alice Cooper (with "Feed My Frankenstein") and Parliament, who recorded the album The Clones of Dr. Funkenstein.

POP CULTURE:

Q: What 1985 Nintendo arcade video game challenged the player to a match of strength against a purple Monster clone named Frank Junior?

A: Arm Wrestling. The young Frank was the fifth and most difficult of the game's opponents, and can distract a player by spitting flames into his face. The game was a spin-off from Nintendo's popular Punch-Out!! game. And, thanks to a joystick, it was less violent than this arm wrestling game.

Q: Why did Franken Berry cereal caused some real fear when introduced in late 1971?

A: The artificial coloring resulted in red stools, which alarmed parents and doctors who thought it was blood.

Q: Where can you visit an attraction called The House of Frankenstein?

A: Actually, there are (at least) two such places. One is in Lake George in the Adirondacks in New York state, and the other is just north of there, on Clifton Hill in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada.

Q: Has The Monster ever appeared on a U.S. postage stamp?

A: Not once, but twice! In 1997 and again in 2002.

postage stamps

Q: After more than a decade away from the Legitimate Theatre, what actress returns to Broadway next month as Elizabeth in the Mel Brooks stage musical Young Frankenstein?

A: Megan Mullally, perhaps best known for her role as Karen Walker on TV's Will and Grace.

Q: In Part 1 of this UnFAQ, we learn that Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was spurred on by a natural disaster. Dean Koontz updated the story in a series that began in 2004; what natural disaster served to stall his Frankenstein series at Book Two?

A: Hurricane Katrina. In the book, Dr. Frankenstein is a present-day New Orleans resident. Koontz had to start over on Book Three after the flood, and has apparently struggled in his attempts to incorporate the real-life tragedy into the story. The third book was initially due in 2006, and fans are hopeful that the revised publication date of this third book "“ Summer 2008 "“ will hold true.

Part II tomorrow!

nextArticle.image_alt|e
Warner Home Video
arrow
entertainment
13 Thrilling Facts About House Of Wax
Warner Home Video
Warner Home Video

A remake of 1933’s Mystery of the Wax Museum, André de Toth’s House of Wax solidified the 3D movie craze of the 1950s. In the process it also walloped the box office and turned Vincent Price into a horror movie icon. On the 65th anniversary of the movie's release, join us on a tour of the legendary House of Wax; keep your hands off the mannequins, though—you might not want to know what lies beneath.

1. IT WAS ONLY THE SECOND 3D MOVIE TO BE RELEASED BY A MAJOR STUDIO.

Three-dimensional cinema is older than you might think. The first feature film to use this technology was the silent drama Power of Love, which dates all the way back to 1922. Yet audiences didn’t truly embrace this innovation until some 30 years later with the release of Bwana Devil—a Technicolor thriller about man-eating lions. Produced independently, Bwana Devil ballooned into a surprise smash, grossing more than $1.3 million in its first month in just 30 theaters. This really caught Hollywood’s attention. At a time when cinemas had to compete with television, 3D looked like the next big thing, a spectacle that could draw viewers out of their living rooms and into the nearest movie house. The industry’s biggest players rushed to cash in. On April 8, 1953, Columbia Pictures’ Man in the Dark premiered, making it the first 3D movie ever released by a major studio. House of Wax, a Warner Bros. film, opened just two days later.

2. IRONICALLY, THE DIRECTOR LACKED DEPTH PERCEPTION.

As a child, André de Toth lost his left eye in an accident. Hence, the native Hungarian often wore an eyepatch. Rumor has it that WB president Jack Warner ordered de Toth not to wear the accessory on the set of House of Wax, lest anyone ridicule the studio for giving a 3D project to a one-eyed filmmaker. However, leading lady Phyllis Kirk cast some doubt on this story. “He may have [gone without his patch], but I don’t remember it,” she said later in an interview. But by all accounts, de Toth was undaunted by the challenging job; once, he rhetorically asked a reporter, “Beethoven couldn’t hear music either, could he?”

Far from being a setback, de Toth’s limited sight may have actively improved the finished product. Vincent Price himself thought as much. According to his daughter, Victoria Price, “Vincent felt that House of Wax was saved from being unrelieved schlock by the faulty vision of its director … Since the 3D effect was lost on him, de Toth never really understood what the fuss was about, and limited his use of the gimmick rather than shamelessly indulging it the way a man with normal eyesight might have done. It was de Toth’s relative restraint, he believed, that turned House of Wax into a classic.”

3. VINCENT PRICE’S MAKEUP LOOKED SO GROTESQUE THAT HE WASN’T ALLOWED TO ENTER CERTAIN BUILDINGS WHILE WEARING IT.

In the movie, Price plays Professor Henry Jarrod, a wax sculptor whose museum and beloved figurines are torched by a greedy businessman (more on that later). Jarrod survives, but his face is horribly disfigured. Since the film was to be shot in both Technicolor and 3D, great pains were taken to ensure that Price’s makeup looked as convincing as possible. The result was a patchwork of hideous burns that shocked audiences—and nauseated a lot of Warner Bros. employees. “I was banished from the studio commissary,” Price later recalled. “This cold shoulder treatment started when I walked [in there] for lunch for the first time and the girl at the register turned green and almost fainted. Then the patrons got up and headed for the door. It was a bad day for business.”

4. IGOR WAS PLAYED BY A YOUNG CHARLES BRONSON.

Charles Bronson in 'House of Wax' (1953)
Warner Home Video

Like Dr. Frankenstein, Professor Jarrod has a henchman named Igor—albeit, one that suffers from mutism instead of back problems. The role was given to Charles Buchinsky, who’d later emerge as one of Hollywood’s favorite tough guys in movies like The Magnificent Seven and The Great Escape. Worried that an eastern European last name might cost him a lot of work during the second Red Scare, Buchinsky rechristened himself as “Charles Bronson“ in 1954.

5. ONE ACTOR’S APPEARANCE WENT UNCREDITED BECAUSE HE’D BEEN BLACKLISTED.

Buchinsky/Bronson had it easy; changing his last name was nothing compared to what Nedrick Young went through as a result of Joseph McCarthy’s communist witch hunt. In early 1953, Young portrayed Leon (Jarrod’s other assistant) in House of Wax. Then, before the movie opened, he had to square off against a very different house: Accused of being a Marxist sympathizer, Young was questioned before the House Un-American Activities Committee. By his own admission, the actor was “a very unfriendly witness.” When asked outright if he was a communist, Young pled the fifth—and was blacklisted. Thanks to the controversy, his name was stricken from the credits in House of Wax.

6. PHYLLIS KIRK TRIED TO TURN THE MOVIE DOWN.

Since she was under contract with Warner Bros., Kirk had no choice but to appear in this picture when the studio cast her as Sue Allen, one of the leads. That didn’t stop her from complaining about the gig. “I bitched and moaned and … [said] that I wasn’t interested in becoming the Fay Wray of my time,” Kirk confessed. Another bone of contention was the 3D format, which she regarded as a “gimmick.” But despite these reservations, Kirk decided that playing ball would be preferable to getting suspended. “And incidentally, I went on to have a lot of fun making House of Wax,” she admitted.

7. THE FIRE IN THE OPENING SCENE SPREAD WILDLY OUT OF CONTROL.

It must have been easy for Price to act alarmed in the sequence in which his museum burns down. Right before the shoot, de Toth’s crew set three “spot fires” in strategic locations. Then the cameras started rolling and everything went downhill. The team quickly lost control of their fires, which merged into a massive inferno that put a hole in the sound stage roof and singed Price’s eyebrows. But because the rapidly melting wax mannequins would’ve been very hard to replace, de Toth kept on filming—even as firemen arrived to help extinguish the flames.

8. IT COMES WITH AN INTERMISSION.

Prior to the late 1970s, “epic” films would often treat their viewers to a built-in bathroom break. Midway through screenings of Gone With the Wind and other, extra-long classics, the action would pause, the theater lights would brighten, and the word “Intermission” would appear onscreen. Ordinarily, this practice was reserved for movies with bladder-testing runtimes of two and a half hours or more. By comparison, House of Wax flies by with its breezy 88-minute runtime. Yet, unconventionally for a short picture, it contains an intermission. Why? Screening the 3D film required two projectors running simultaneously. The respite was necessary because it allowed theater employees to change both reels an hour into the movie.

9. A FUNCTIONING GUILLOTINE WAS USED IN THE CLIMAX.

Toward the end of the film, Igor gets into a big fight with Sue’s boyfriend, Scott, played by Paul Picerni. From the get-go, there’s no doubt about which one has the upper hand, as Igor seizes poor Scott and shoves his head under a guillotine in the museum’s French Revolution display. Luckily, the police arrive in time to rescue our hero, pulling him out of harm’s way seconds before the blade comes crashing down.

Just like his character, Picerni came dangerously close to getting his head chopped off, Louis XVI-style—because this guillotine was 100 percent real. Rather than film the scene in segments, de Toth wanted to shoot the whole thing in one take. With blithe nonchalance, he told Picerni to go and stick his head under the razor-sharp blade of this death device.

Naturally, Picerni objected. At a 2006 House of Wax Q&A, the star reminisced at length about the argument that followed. “I asked de Toth, ‘How are you going to control the blade?’ He said the property master was going to sit on top of the guillotine, holding the blade between his legs, then let it drop after my head was removed.” When the actor opined that this sounded dangerous, de Toth replied, “What are you, chicken sh*t?” In the end, Picerni agreed to do the scene in one take, on the condition that a metal bar be inserted under the blade to keep it from falling prematurely.

10. THE FILM WAS COMPLETED WAY AHEAD OF SCHEDULE.

House of Wax was given a $1.5 million budget and 60-day shooting schedule. De Toth finished it in only 28 days for a meager $650,000. Blown away by this efficiency, Jack Warner sent him a case of whiskey as a “thank you.”

11. BELA LUGOSI ATTENDED THE PREMIERE—ALONG WITH A GUY IN A GORILLA SUIT.

Although the star of Universal’s Dracula (1931) did not appear in House of Wax, he did help promote it. The film’s world premiere was held at the Paramount Theater in Los Angeles on April 16, 1953. As a publicity stunt, Lugosi was invited to attend the big event. Clad in a vampire cape, he emerged from his limousine with a chain link leash, which was attached to an actor in an ape costume—a clear homage to the 1952 comedy Bela Lugosi Meets a Brooklyn Gorilla.

12. IT MADE BOX OFFICE HISTORY.

House of Wax turned into one of the biggest hits of 1953 and 1954. In an era where movie tickets cost an average of 49 cents apiece, the horror feature pulled in an astonishing $5.5 million domestically. This made House of Wax the highest-grossing 3D movie ever made at the time, although it would lose this title in 1969 to a popular “skin flick” called The Stewardesses. By the way, Star Wars: The Force Awakens is the current record-holder.

13. PRICE LIKED TO ATTEND SCREENINGS OF THE MOVIE INCOGNITO.

As the thespian once told biographer Joel Eisner, he’d regularly go out and see House of Wax during its run. Happily for Price, the requisite 3D glasses could usually conceal his identity in the back of a dimly lit theater. But one night, he decided to make his presence known. At a showing in New York City, Price quietly took a seat behind two teenagers. Right after a particularly frightening scene, he leaned forward and asked “Did you like it?” In Price’s words, “They went right into orbit!"

nextArticle.image_alt|e
Library of Congress (LOC), Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
arrow
entertainment
10 Fascinating Facts About Ella Fitzgerald
Library of Congress (LOC), Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
Library of Congress (LOC), Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

Today marks what would have been the 101st birthday of Ella Fitzgerald, the pioneering jazz singer who helped revolutionize the genre. But the iconic songstress’s foray into the music industry was almost accidental, as she had planned to show off her dancing skills when she made her stage debut. Celebrate the birthday of the artist known as the First Lady of Song, Queen of Jazz, or just plain ol’ Lady Ella with these fascinating facts.

1. SHE WAS A JAZZ FAN FROM A YOUNG AGE.

Though she attempted to launch her career as a dancer (more on that in a moment), Ella Fitzgerald was a jazz enthusiast from a very young age. She was a fan of Louis Armstrong and Bing Crosby, and truly idolized Connee Boswell of the Boswell Sisters. “She was tops at the time,” Fitzgerald said in 1988. “I was attracted to her immediately. My mother brought home one of her records, and I fell in love with it. I tried so hard to sound just like her.”

2. SHE DABBLED IN CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES AS A TEENAGER.

A photo of Ella Fitzgerald
Carl Van Vechten - Library of Congress, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

Fitzgerald’s childhood wasn’t an easy one. Her stepfather was reportedly abusive to her, and that abuse continued following the death of Fitzgerald’s mother in 1932. Eventually, to escape the violence, she moved to Harlem to live with her aunt. While she had been a great student when she was younger, it was following that move that her dedication to education faltered. Her grades dropped and she often skipped school. But she found other ways to fill her days, not all of them legal: According to The New York Times, she worked for a mafia numbers runner and served as a police lookout at a local brothel. Her illicit activities eventually landed her in an orphanage, followed by a state reformatory.

3. SHE MADE HER STAGE DEBUT AT THE APOLLO THEATER.

In the early 1930s, Fitzgerald was able to make a little pocket change from the tips she made from passersby while singing on the streets of Harlem. In 1934, she finally got the chance to step onto a real (and very famous) stage when she took part in an Amateur Night at the Apollo Theater on November 21, 1934. It was her stage debut.

The then-17-year-old managed to wow the crowd by channeling her inner Connee Boswell and belting out her renditions of “Judy” and “The Object of My Affection.” She won, and took home a $25 prize. Here’s the interesting part: She entered the competition as a dancer. But when she saw that she had some stiff competition in that department, she opted to sing instead. It was the first big step toward a career in music.

4. A NURSERY RHYME HELPED HER GET THE PUBLIC’S ATTENTION.

Not long after her successful debut at the Apollo, Fitzgerald met bandleader Chick Webb. Though he was initially reluctant to hire her because of what The New York Times described as her “gawky and unkempt” appearance, her powerful voice won him over. "I thought my singing was pretty much hollering," she later said, "but Webb didn't."

Her first hit was a unique adaptation of “A-Tisket, A-Tasket,” which she helped to write based on what she described as "that old drop-the-handkerchief game I played from 6 to 7 years old on up."

5. SHE WAS PAINFULLY SHY.

Though it certainly takes a lot of courage to get up and perform in front of the world, those who knew and worked with Fitzgerald said that she was extremely shy. In Ella Fitzgerald: A Biography of the First Lady of Jazz, trumpeter Mario Bauzá—who played with Fitzgerald in Chick Webb’s orchestra—explained that “she didn't hang out much. When she got into the band, she was dedicated to her music … She was a lonely girl around New York, just kept herself to herself, for the gig."

6. SHE MADE HER FILM DEBUT IN AN ABBOTT AND COSTELLO MOVIE.

As her IMDb profile attests, Fitzgerald contributed to a number of films and television series over the years, and not just to the soundtracks. She also worked as an actress on a handful of occasions (often an actress who sings), beginning with 1942’s Ride ‘Em Cowboy, a comedy-western starring Bud Abbott and Lou Costello.

7. SHE GOT SOME HELP FROM MARILYN MONROE.

“I owe Marilyn Monroe a real debt,” Fitzgerald said in a 1972 interview in Ms. Magazine. “It was because of her that I played the Mocambo, a very popular nightclub in the ’50s. She personally called the owner of the Mocambo and told him she wanted me booked immediately, and if he would do it, she would take a front table every night. She told him—and it was true, due to Marilyn’s superstar status—that the press would go wild. The owner said yes, and Marilyn was there, front table, every night. The press went overboard … After that, I never had to play a small jazz club again. She was an unusual woman—a little ahead of her times. And she didn’t know it.”

Though it has often been reported that the club’s owner did not want to book Fitzgerald because she was black, it was later explained that his reluctance wasn’t due to Fitzgerald’s race; he apparently didn’t believe that she was “glamorous” enough for the patrons to whom he catered.

8. SHE WAS THE FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMAN TO WIN A GRAMMY.

Ella Fitzgerald
William P. Gottlieb - LOC, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

Among her many other accomplishments, in 1958 Fitzgerald became the first African American woman to win a Grammy Award. Actually, she won two awards that night: one for Best Jazz Performance, Soloist for Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Duke Ellington Songbook, and another for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance for Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Irving Berlin Songbook.

9. HER FINAL PERFORMANCE WAS AT CARNEGIE HALL.

On June 27, 1991, Fitzgerald—who had, at that point, recorded more than 200 albums—performed at Carnegie Hall. It was the 26th time she had performed at the venue, and it ended up being her final performance.

10. SHE LOST BOTH OF HER LEGS TO DIABETES.

In her later years, Fitzgerald suffered from a number of health problems. She was hospitalized a handful of times during the 1980s for everything from respiratory problems to exhaustion. She also suffered from diabetes, which took much of her eyesight and led to her having to have both of her legs amputated below the knee in 1993. She never fully recovered from the surgery and never performed again. She passed away at her home in Beverly Hills on June 15, 1996.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios