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The Grim Sleeper: Five Disorders That Make For Scary Slumbering

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Following up on our field trip to MetroNaps, let's examine the dark side of sleep. Back in Volume 3, Issue 1 ("Our Worst Issue"), Dr. Ken Carter discussed five sleep disorders that will keep you up at night. Which could be a good thing.

Five Disorders That Make for Scary Slumbering

by Ken Carter, Ph.D.

According to the National Sleep Foundation, up to 72 percent of us experience some symptoms of a sleep disorder at least a few nights a week. People with chronic symptoms, however, can develop a sleep disorder that interferes with their lives on a daily basis, leaving them impaired and miserable. For most, it's insomnia. For others, the problem is much more unique.

1. Sleep Eating
Nocturnal Sleep-Related Eating Disorder, or Sleep Eating, is a condition similar to sleepwalking in which affected people will engage in nightly noshing while partially or totally asleep. The most common Sleep Eating episodes entail a person sleepwalking to the refrigerator and munching on a midnight snack that they'll probably never remember. Other times, the episodes are more elaborate, and the fully asleep sufferers head to the kitchen to chop, stir-fry, bake or bust out the George Foreman. In fact, reports indicate that up to one-third of Sleep Eaters have hurt themselves while preparing or eating food (which is actually really low when you think about grillin' up food Emeril-style while unconscious—bam!).

The disorder is fairly rare, occurring in only about one and a half percent of the population. Two out of three people with Sleep Eating are women, and three out of four eat nightly (some up to eight times a night). Most of them (84 percent) are completely unaware of their nighttime snacks. And ironically, in almost all cases, the behavior doesn't appear to be hunger-related.

felix.jpgTo make things even more strange, the food choices of Sleep Eaters can be, at times, very peculiar. Case studies have revealed nighttime meals that include cat food, raw chicken, coffee grounds and milk, sandwiches made with fistfuls of salt, and even inedibles such as ammonia or buttered soda cans.

Keep reading for Sleep Paralysis, Sexsomnia and more...


2. Sleep Paralysis

sleep1.jpg During normal sleep, your brain sends a signal to your body to inhibit your movement while you're dreaming. This keeps you from thrashing around and possibly hurting yourself. But when Sleep Paralysis occurs, the brain either switches on your muscle inhibition feature too soon or doesn't switch it off when you wake up, which can lead to very creepy experiences. In addition to being unable to move, many people will dream while they're awake — basically hallucinating. The most common hallucinations that occur with Sleep Paralysis include sensing or seeing another person in the room, being touched, hearing footsteps, floating, or even hearing someone call your name. And for some people, the sensation is so strong they think they've had a stroke and are really paralyzed. Episodes of Sleep Paralysis can last anywhere from 10 seconds to a terrifying 70 minutes.

But it could never happen to you, right? Wrong. Studies suggest that about half of us have experienced at least one episode of hypnagogic Sleep Paralysis, the kind that occurs soon after we fall asleep. Chronic Sleep Paralysis, however, only affects about six percent of adults. Generally, the disorder is related to jet lag, sleep deprivation, stress or even your sleeping position. It's believed that supine sleep (sleeping on your back) can make a person five times more likely to have an episode of Sleep Paralysis than any other position.

If you do happen to wake one morning and find yourself paralyzed, try wiggling your toes. The paralysis seems to affect larger muscles more than smaller ones, so a good way to get out of it is to try to make small movements. If that doesn't work, check for a crazed Kathy Bates lurching around your room à la Misery, and make sure your ankles are still intact.

3. Sexsomnia
It's embarrassing enough to be told that you snore or mumble in your sleep, but imagine being told that you take off all your clothes, moan in ecstasy, and sometimes even pleasure yourself—all without any memory of doing so. This is what happens with Sexsomnia.

Researchers at the Sleep Disorder Center at Stanford University have classified the sexual behaviors that occur during sleep into three categories. The first involves actions that the researchers describe as "annoying," though not harmful. Cases in this category include sexual moaning loud enough to be heard in adjoining rooms, attempts to remove clothing, and mumbling sexually inappropriate phrases. The second category includes behaviors that are also considered annoying but are, at times, harmful to the person suffering from Sexsomnia. Often, this involves violent masturbation that can cause bruising and soreness the next morning. The last, and most severe, category is for actions that are harmful to others. These cases involve inappropriate and violent sexual behavior.

When confronted, people with Sexsomnia have no memory of their actions and become confused and embarrassed. One case study described a man who was so ashamed of his uncontrollable sexual behavior that he refused to share a bed with his wife and would restrain himself during the night to prevent any inappropriate conduct. But even that didn't work. According to the researchers, on one particular evening his Sexsomnia desires were so forceful that he not only broke his restraints, but also two fingers.

Most bed partners of those with Sexsomnia find the behavior disquieting and unwelcome. There have even been cases of arrest for sexual battery. Other cases aren't quite as severe, and the episodes of Sexsomnia may be indistinguishable from sex when awake. One woman didn't realize that her husband was suffering from Sexsomnia for months. Finally one night, she clued in when she noticed something different about her husband while they were having sex: he was snoring.

Some people think that the diagnosis of Sexsomnia is used to justify inappropriate sexual advances. However, in nearly every case, doctors were able to document abnormal patterns of REM (rapid eye movement) or non-REM sleep, something impossible to fake. The majority of cases also had other psychiatric diagnoses. Fortunately, most patients with Sexsomnia can be successfully treated with psychotropic medications.

4. Pseudoinsomnia
sheep.jpg We've all had nights where we just couldn't seem to get to sleep. We toss and turn, punch our pillows, count sheep, and wonder what shirt will go best with the dark circles under our eyes the next morning. This is classic insomnia, a condition that an estimated 20 million people experience on a nightly or nearly nightly basis. Strangely, roughly five percent of these insomnia sufferers actually sleep much better than they realize. Why? They don't have insomnia, but instead a condition known as Sleep State Misperception, or Pseudoinsomnia. People with this disorder have vivid dreams about not being able to sleep: tossing and turning and counting those sheep. Consequently, they wake the next morning feeling exhausted and believing they spent the entire night wide awake.

Often a bed partner discovers the disorder by assuring their mate that he or she is actually sleeping through the night. Other times, it's diagnosed by a physician, but usually only after prescriptions for typical sleep inducers seem to fail. Luckily, the simple diagnosis of Pseudoinsomnia is usually enough to do the trick in curing the disorder.

5. Sleep Terrors
fuseli.jpgEveryone knows that nightmares can be horrifying. You wake terrified, sometimes in the midst of your own screaming, remembering vividly disturbing images. That's when it's time to crawl into bed with Mom and Dad. But nightmares, which occur late in our sleep cycles, are a lot different from Sleep Terrors, which happen earlier during non-REM sleep. People with Sleep Terrors experience sudden episodes of concentrated fright. To an observer, they will seem awake, but they're not. With eyes wide open, their breathing is intense and their heart rate has shot through the roof. They might even scream at the top of their lungs in fear, look panicked, and act as if they're in excruciating pain.

It's okay to wake them "¦ if you can. But it's very difficult to rouse some sleepers out of one of these episodes. When they do wake up, most of the time they have no memory of the experience or the emotional upheaval it caused them (and most likely, the people around them).

Sleep Terrors usually occur in kids. About three percent of children report having at least one attack. For adults, it's even more infrequent, with less than one percent experiencing Sleep Terrors.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Opening Ceremony
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These $425 Jeans Can Turn Into Jorts
May 19, 2017
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Opening Ceremony

Modular clothing used to consist of something simple, like a reversible jacket. Today, it’s a $425 pair of detachable jeans.

Apparel retailer Opening Ceremony recently debuted a pair of “2 in 1 Y/Project” trousers that look fairly peculiar. The legs are held to the crotch by a pair of loops, creating a disjointed C-3PO effect. Undo the loops and you can now remove the legs entirely, leaving a pair of jean shorts in their wake. The result goes from this:

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Opening Ceremony

To this:

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Opening Ceremony

The company also offers a slightly different cut with button tabs in black for $460. If these aren’t audacious enough for you, the Y/Project line includes jumpsuits with removable legs and garter-equipped jeans.

[h/t Mashable]

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