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On Music: The Maestro Quiz

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I've always been fascinated by orchestras and how each one has its own personality. It's impossible, for example, to mistake the Philadelphia Orchestra for the Russian National Orchestra, especially if they're both playing a Shostakovich symphony. This is partly due to traditions and customs, but also has a lot to do with the conductors that helped bring each orchestra to prominence.

Philadelphia has always been known for its lush string section and, at least in the past, would often slow bigger pieces down a little so the strings could really open up. Other orchestras, like the Boston Pops, largely due to its association with Maestro/composer John Williams, have become synonymous with film scores, especially of the Spielberg variety.

Star_Wars_Saga_Philips_2894.gifFor reasons still unclear to me, The London Symphony Orchestra long ago decided it was THE rock orchestra and have recorded orchestral versions of Sting's music, Frank Zappa's, Led Zeppelin's, Yes', The Beatles, The Who, Genesis (!), the list is endless and a bit comical. For a while there, they were also the orchestra that did a lot of Bernstein musicals like Candide and On the Town. During some of those years, I had the privilege of working with the LSO and Maestro Michael Tilson Thomas and often asked the musicians what the deal was with the orchestra and rock'n'roll. The closest I ever got to a believable answer was that many of the best rock bands came out of London, so it only made sense that the LSO be the go-to group. To which I always wondered: well what about the London Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO) or the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (RPO), or any of the other wonderful ensembles they've got over there?

So.. as already noted, many orchestras have become connected with famous conductors—maestros who've helped shape not only the repertoire the orchestra has become known for, but the actual sound. Here's a new quiz I put together where you have to match 10 of the most famous orchestras with 10 conductors who helped put them on the musical map. Get out those air-batons and give 'em a tap, tap, tap. And then come on back and let us know if it was too easy.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Name the Author Based on the Character
May 23, 2017
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