ThisToThat.com is a highly functional web site with a single purpose: "Because people have a need to glue things to other things." You select the two things to glue and the site recommends the proper adhesive. Need to attach Ceramic to Fabric? (I sure hope not...) ThisToThat.com recommends 3M 77 spray adhesive.
Formerly known as "ol'pile o'bones", Regina, Saskatchewan in Canada was a large source of buffalo bones used in the production of animal glues. The advancement of the railroad resulted in the slaughtering of thousands of buffalo, and the bones were later shipped back east on the same railroad, to be turned into glue. This type of glue has mostly been replaced with synthetic PVAs in the domestic market. But some glues still use a combination of animal or fish bone and PVAs.
Also check out the Post-It Notes explanation, which describes how that re-stickable Post-It Notes adhesive works. This all reminds me of the old saw: "Duct tape is like The Force - it has a light side and a dark side, and it binds the Universe together."