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How To: Thwart A Bio-Terrorist Attack

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YOU WILL NEED
Some Llamas

Step 1: Recognize the Awesomeness That is the Llama
Push those vile stereotypes out of your mind. Llamas are more than just South America's walking sweater. For one thing, they jump—many reaching Jordan-like heights of as much as four feet. They also make excellent golf caddies and scientists have developed a way to make a dandruff control treatment out of the llama's immune system.

Step 2: Draw Blood From Several Of Your New Furry Friends
Then head to the lab. You're on the hunt for llama antibodies. Complex proteins that float freely through the bloodstream of almost every animal, antibodies recognize, and clamp onto, anything that isn't supposed to be inside the body--sort of like a tiny, biological car boot. Antibodies serve as a signal to immune cells, attracting them to the intruder. If they've encountered this particular invader before, antibodies can actually neutralize it themselves. And scientists have found that they can manipulate antibodies into locating, identifying, and destroying other things as well—like cancer cells, dangerous microbes, and toxic chemicals. The problem, antibodies don't fare so well outside of a body. In high temperatures they quickly break down and become useless.

Step 3: Convert the Blood Into a Bio-Weapon Defense System
In December of 2006, scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory announced that they had found a way to get around the problem of inconveniently delicate antibodies. That's right, it's llamas. Turns out, the antibodies found in llamas (and sharks and camels, too"¦but they aren't as cute) are about one-tenth the size of human antibodies and significantly less complex of in structure. But, this simplicity and small stature also makes them more durable. Llama antibodies can survive temperatures as a high as 200 degrees F and researchers were able to train them into identifying some of the diseases likely to be used as WMDs: cholera, smallpox, and the toxin ricin. The hope is that, with a little more work, we'll be able to pack thousands of llama antibodies into a sensor that could send out a red-alert of biological attack, long before anybody actually got sick.

Photo is courtesy Generally Awesome and, in this context, is meant to depict an elite squad of llama Homeland Security agents parachuting in to save the day.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Name the Author Based on the Character
May 23, 2017
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