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Weekend Word Wrap: obscure and obsolete words

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Though today's Word Wrap is on obscure or obsolete words, I have to start by sending you over to a related site called, created by Jonathan Harris in conjunction with the FABRICA studio of Italy.

If you love words like I do, and if you're a regular reader of the Word Wrap, I assume you must, you have to check it out. They visually rank the top 86,800 most commonly used words in the English language from "the" (most common) to "conquistador" (least common) and give you two different ways to search: by word or ranking.

Of course there are way more than 86,800 words in our language. In fact, there are more than five times that number listed in the OED. Compare that to German, which has only about 185,000 or French with less than 100,000 (including Franglais like le snacque-barre and un parking), and you begin to see how rich our language actually is.

Sadly, most of us only use somewhere in the neighborhood of 5,000 words. (Shakespeare is said to have used 27,505 unique words in his works, btw.) So it shouldn't come as a surprise that there are hundreds of thousands of obscure or obsolete words. As always, we'd love to hear some of your favorites. Meanwhile, after the jump, you'll find a long list of mine...

For the most part, these come from a new edition of a nearly three decade old book called, The Book of Lists (the one by David Wallechinsky and Amy Wallace):

BOANTHROPY - A type of insanity in which a man thinks he is an ox.

FINDIBLE - Able to be cleft or split

CHANTEPLEURE - To sing and weep at the same time.

DIBBLE - To drink like a duck, lifting up the head after each sip.

EOSOPHOBIA - Fear of dawn.

EUGERIA - Normal and happy old age.

GYNOTIKOLOBOMASSOPHILE - One who likes to nibble on a woman's earlobes.

HEBEPHRENIC - A condition of adolescent silliness.

IATROGENIC - Illness or disease caused by doctors or by prescribed treatment.

LAPLING - Someone who enjoys resting in women's laps.

EUNEIROPHRENIA - Peace of mind after a pleasant dream.

EYESERVICE - Work done only when the boss is watching.

FELLOWFEEL - To crawl into the skin of another person so as to share his feelings, to empathize with.

GROAK - To watch people silently while they are eating, hoping they will ask you to join them.

LIBBERWORT - Food or drink that makes one idle and stupid, food of no nutritional value, `junk food'.

MEUPAREUNIA - A sexual act gratifying to only one participant.

NEANIMORPHIC - Looking younger than one's years.
ONIOCHALASIA - Buying as a means of mental relaxation.

PARNEL - A priest's mistress.

PERISTEROPHOBIA - Fear of pigeons.

SUPPEDANEUM - A foot support for those on a crucifix.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Name the Author Based on the Character
May 23, 2017
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