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We've got issues.

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So, if you're reading this, you're probably at your desk, and that makes me sad, because it's Labor Day! You should be outside enjoying the last days of summer or, at the very least, not laboring!

Alas, there's not much I can do about that, but let me try to cheer you up by telling you about all the wonderful things you'll find in the brand-spanking-new issue of mental_floss (and if you don't have your copy, you must run out and get one).

It's our annual 10 issue, so inside, you'll find:

10 Shocking Stories about America's First Ladies. They threw wild parties, they smashed priceless wineglasses, they made lewd remarks about roosters -- frankly, they made us wonder if the term "First Lady" wasn't something of a misnomer.

10 Gloriously Underhanded Sports Tactics. If you thought Cartman's attempt to win the Special Olympics was bad, you ain't seen nothin' -- just wait 'til you meet Eddie Stanky, the Spanish Paralympic Basketball Team, the mysterious "Mr. Martin," and seven other famously bad sports.

10 Not-So-Bright Ideas in Science. Is your dog feeling a little inadequate now that he's been neutered? Does your pet frog have B.O.? Are your pants exploding? No matter your problem, Science has a solution, though perhaps not a very effective one.

10 Studious Animals to Cheat off of in School. You already know that dolphins are smart and elephants never forget. But you may be surprised to find out there's a lot you could learn from a fruit fly, or an ant, or a stripe-backed wren.

10 TV Shows that Changed the World. We can't tell you who shot J.R. (well, we could, but that's not the point). We can tell you that "Dallas" killed Nicolae Ceausescu, in a metaphorical sense -- it helped inspire Romanians with fantasies of Western life -- and it's not the only TV show to have an impact on world affairs.

10 Most Important Days in the History of the Universe. The cosmos has been around for 15.8 billion years (give or take a couple billion), and in that time just a few important things have happened. Here are ten of them, courtesy of a top astronomer.

10 Places You'd Never Think to Find Albert Einstein. He's here, he's there, he's everywhere -- in space, on Broadway, in your shotglass, in your garden, on eBay!

10 Facts about Iraq (That You Won't Hear on the Nightly News). If all you think of when you hear "Iraq" is "violence," let us change your mind -- we'd much rather you thought "orange soda" or "sheep in the shotgun seat" instead.

10 Coins that Aren't Boring. Really! There are coins from leper colonies, coins favored by pirates and con artists, coins from 1780 (that aren't actually from 1780), coins from 1804 (that aren't actually from 1804), giant coins, steel coins, blank coins... just trust us, okay?

10 Religious Holidays Not Yet Exploited by Hallmark. Get your swords out of storage, stick a flower on your forehead, paint your body blue, and leave some food at the front door for any wandering souls who happen to drop by -- it's time to party!

Plus, our ever popular regular features: Scatterbrained (it's all about college), the Quiz, the Dead Guy Interview, and the Know-It-All, brought to you by the letter J and our own A.J. Jacobs.

We'll be feeding you little tidbits from the issue all week (we're taking the rest of today off but we'll be back bright and early tomorrow morning.) For the whole thing you'll have to head to your nearest newsstand or bookstore (or, if you're super brilliant, you can subscribe here and get future issues before they hit stores). Run, don't walk, unless you're carrying scissors!

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
technology
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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iStock
Animals
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Scientists Think They Know How Whales Got So Big
May 24, 2017
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iStock

It can be difficult to understand how enormous the blue whale—the largest animal to ever exist—really is. The mammal can measure up to 105 feet long, have a tongue that can weigh as much as an elephant, and have a massive, golf cart–sized heart powering a 200-ton frame. But while the blue whale might currently be the Andre the Giant of the sea, it wasn’t always so imposing.

For the majority of the 30 million years that baleen whales (the blue whale is one) have occupied the Earth, the mammals usually topped off at roughly 30 feet in length. It wasn’t until about 3 million years ago that the clade of whales experienced an evolutionary growth spurt, tripling in size. And scientists haven’t had any concrete idea why, Wired reports.

A study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B might help change that. Researchers examined fossil records and studied phylogenetic models (evolutionary relationships) among baleen whales, and found some evidence that climate change may have been the catalyst for turning the large animals into behemoths.

As the ice ages wore on and oceans were receiving nutrient-rich runoff, the whales encountered an increasing number of krill—the small, shrimp-like creatures that provided a food source—resulting from upwelling waters. The more they ate, the more they grew, and their bodies adapted over time. Their mouths grew larger and their fat stores increased, helping them to fuel longer migrations to additional food-enriched areas. Today blue whales eat up to four tons of krill every day.

If climate change set the ancestors of the blue whale on the path to its enormous size today, the study invites the question of what it might do to them in the future. Changes in ocean currents or temperature could alter the amount of available nutrients to whales, cutting off their food supply. With demand for whale oil in the 1900s having already dented their numbers, scientists are hoping that further shifts in their oceanic ecosystem won’t relegate them to history.

[h/t Wired]

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