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Why Do Flocks of Geese Fly in a “V” Shape?

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In large swaths of the U.S. this time of year, it seems you can’t get more than a few feet without tripping over a Canada Goose; they come down here from the Great White North for the winter months (or, in some places, hang out year-round). When they’re not lounging about in field and stream, you might see them flying overhead, usually in a large "V" formation, with one bird in the lead and the others trailing behind it in two diverging lines.

Why do they fly in a “V”? Not just because a “Q” would be too hard. Scientists have found that the “V” formation serves two functions that make group travel easier.

Give Me A Lift

One reason—first proposed by aerospace engineers Peter Lissaman and Carl Shollenberger in 1970—is that the shape of the formation makes the birds more energetically efficient flyers than they would be flying alone. As a goose flies, air rushes around its wings, creating circular, rotating patterns of air at the ends of the wings called wingtip vortices. The vortices push air downward and upward in different spots (you can see a pretty clear illustration of this here), and if another goose is flying in one of the spots where the air is getting pushed up, it gets some free lift (the air force that directly opposes the goose’s weight) from the efforts of the first goose.

If geese fly in a group and arrange themselves correctly, then every one behind the leader gets a little extra lift and doesn’t have to flap as much to maintain altitude and forward momentum. The less they flap, the more energy they conserve, and the farther they can fly.

For a long time, scientists only had mathematical models, photos and distant observations of live geese to support this idea. The aerodynamics made sense, and observed birds were almost always in positioned in the formation to gain some advantage, but no one was able to directly measure the energetic benefit, if any, to free-flying birds.

Then, in 2001, French scientists had a unique opportunity to do just that when they crossed paths with a film company that had trained great white pelicans to fly in formation behind motorboats and ultralight planes for movie scenes. Researchers from the Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, led by ecologist Henri Weimerskirch, fitted the birds with heart rate monitors and then filmed them in flight. Their data showed that the heart rates of pelicans flying in “V” formation were 11.4–14.5 percent lower than that of any one bird flying alone, and that the birds in formation could afford to flap less and glide more, for energy savings of 11.4–14.0 percent.

Given this, why don’t all birds fly in the “V”? It seems the advantages of the formation only apply to larger birds, like geese and pelicans, and aren’t as pronounced for smaller, lighter birds. But other formations may have their benefits, too. While the “cluster” formations that pigeons fly in, for example, actually cost them energy versus flying alone, they might allow large groups to fly close together and maneuver and turn without mid-air collisions.

An Eye On You

Researchers have noticed something funny with some bird flocks: While the birds usually fly in positions that give them some energy benefit, not every bird is always in the expected optimal position, and therefore they get lower energy savings. Some birds just aren’t making the most of the “V,” which got people thinking that there might be another reason for the formation.

That reason might be that the formation allows the birds to maintain visual contact with each other and to communicate, making it easier to keep the group together and navigate. Taking the angles of the formation and what they know about geese’s field of vision and “blind spots” into account, researchers from the University of Rhode Island hypothesize that a “V” angle of 29 degrees or more would allow every bird in the group to see every other bird. There don't appear to be any studies that directly test this idea.

Just like with the energy conservation idea, though, the birds don’t always take up the optimal spot for clear visual contact. Most fly, instead, in positions that give them some benefit in terms of both energy and flock contact, or in one or the other. Those close-but-no-cigar situations beg the question of whether there's another "V" advantage we're not seeing, or if it's just really hard for birds to find and maintain the best spot in the formation.

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Big Questions
Who Was Chuck Taylor?
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From Betty Crocker to Tommy Bahama, plenty of popular labels are "named" after fake people. But one product with a bona fide backstory to its moniker is Converse's Chuck Taylor All-Star sneakers. The durable gym shoes are beloved by everyone from jocks to hipsters. But who's the man behind the cursive signature on the trademark circular ankle patch?

As journalist Abraham Aamidor recounted in his 2006 book Chuck Taylor, All Star: The True Story of the Man behind the Most Famous Athletic Shoe in History, Chuck Taylor was a former pro basketball player-turned-Converse salesman whose personal brand and tireless salesmanship were instrumental to the shoes' success.

Charles Hollis Taylor was born on July 24, 1901, and raised in southern Indiana. Basketball—the brand-new sport invented by James Naismith in 1891—was beginning to take the Hoosier State by storm. Taylor joined his high school team, the Columbus High School Bull Dogs, and was named captain.

After graduation, instead of heading off to college, Taylor launched his semi-pro career playing basketball with the Columbus Commercials. He’d go on to play for a handful of other teams across the Midwest, including the the Akron Firestone Non-Skids in Ohio, before finally moving to Chicago in 1922 to work as a sales representative for the Converse Rubber Shoe Co. (The company's name was eventually shortened to Converse, Inc.)

Founded in Malden, Massachusetts, in 1908 as a rubber shoe manufacturer, Converse first began producing canvas shoes in 1915, since there wasn't a year-round market for galoshes. They introduced their All-Star canvas sports shoes two years later, in 1917. It’s unclear whether Chuck was initially recruited to also play ball for Converse (by 1926, the brand was sponsoring a traveling team) or if he was simply employed to work in sales. However, we do know that he quickly proved himself to be indispensable to the company.

Taylor listened carefully to customer feedback, and passed on suggestions for shoe improvements—including more padding under the ball of the foot, a different rubber compound in the sole to avoid scuffs, and a patch to protect the ankle—to his regional office. He also relied on his basketball skills to impress prospective clients, hosting free Chuck Taylor basketball clinics around the country to teach high school and college players his signature moves on the court.

In addition to his myriad other job duties, Taylor played for and managed the All-Stars, a traveling team sponsored by Converse to promote their new All Star shoes, and launched and helped publish the Converse Basketball Yearbook, which covered the game of basketball on an annual basis.

After leaving the All-Stars, Taylor continued to publicize his shoe—and own personal brand—by hobnobbing with customers at small-town sporting goods stores and making “special appearances” at local basketball games. There, he’d be included in the starting lineup of a local team during a pivotal game.

Taylor’s star grew so bright that in 1932, Converse added his signature to the ankle patch of the All Star shoes. From that point on, they were known as Chuck Taylor All-Stars. Still, Taylor—who reportedly took shameless advantage of his expense account and earned a good salary—is believed to have never received royalties for the use of his name.

In 1969, Taylor was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame. The same year, he died from a heart attack on June 23, at the age of 67. Around this time, athletic shoes manufactured by companies like Adidas and Nike began replacing Converse on the court, and soon both Taylor and his namesake kicks were beloved by a different sort of customer.

Still, even though Taylor's star has faded over the decades, fans of his shoe continue to carry on his legacy: Today, Converse sells more than 270,000 pairs of Chuck Taylors a day, 365 days a year, to retro-loving customers who can't get enough of the athlete's looping cursive signature.

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Big Questions
What Is the Difference Between Generic and Name Brand Ibuprofen?
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What is the difference between generic ibuprofen vs. name brands?

Yali Friedman:

I just published a paper that answers this question: Are Generic Drugs Less Safe than their Branded Equivalents?

Here’s the tl;dr version:

Generic drugs are versions of drugs made by companies other than the company which originally developed the drug.

To gain FDA approval, a generic drug must:

  • Contain the same active ingredients as the innovator drug (inactive ingredients may vary)
  • Be identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration
  • Have the same use indications
  • Be bioequivalent
  • Meet the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality
  • Be manufactured under the same strict standards of FDA's good manufacturing practice regulations required for innovator products

I hope you found this answer useful. Feel free to reach out at For more on generic drugs, you can see our resources and whitepapers at Pharmaceutical strategic guidance and whitepapers

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.


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