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Is Puerto Rico on the Verge of Becoming the 51st State?

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In the midst of Tuesday's mad rush of election news from all 50 states, one contest was largely lost in the shuffle: Puerto Rico's referendum on statehood, which could potentially make the Caribbean island and U.S. territory the 51st state in the union. Now that the ballots have been tallied, it's clear that a majority of Puerto Ricans favor full statehood. What's the next step for Puerto Rico and the U.S. government? Could Puerto Rico really become the 51st state? Here's what you should know.

First off: What makes a U.S. territory different than a state?

There are a number of things, but essentially, though Puerto Ricans are considered U.S. citizens, they lack representation in the Electoral College. Indeed, the closest thing Puerto Rico has to representation in the federal government is a non-voting "Resident Commissioner" seat in the House of Representatives, which is currently held by Pedro Pierluisi (D) — a position "that has as much influence as a court jester," says David Minsky at the Miami New Times.

When did this arrangement begin?

In 1917, when Puerto Ricans were officially recognized as U.S. citizens, almost 20 years after the United States military acquired the Caribbean island in the Spanish-American War. Since then, three referendums have been held — in 1967, 1993, and 1998 — but statehood has remained elusive.

So what exactly happened in Puerto Rico on Election Day?

A majority of Puerto Ricans voted in favor of becoming America's 51st state. In a two-part referendum, 53 percent of voters said they didn't want to continue Puerto Rico's current 114-year relationship with the United States. In the second part, which offered several alternatives to current U.S.-Puerto Rico ties, 65 percent of voters favored statehood, 31 percent favored sovereign free association, and 4 percent favored full independence.

Does that mean Puerto Rico is on its way to statehood?

Not necessarily. It's certainly a possible step in that direction — but "don't start trying to fit a 51st star onto the U.S. flag just yet," says Abby Ohlehieser at Slate. Both the Senate and the House of Representatives would need to approve Puerto Rico's statehood by a two-thirds majority, and though President Obama has said he would be open to the possibility of Puerto Rico joining the union, it's not clear if Tuesday's vote is enough to convince the White House to forcefully take up the issue.

Any other hurdles in the way?

Several. If the United States were to admit Puerto Rico into the union, the island would potentially be expected to embrace English as the universal language of understanding — a tall order for the reported 85 percent of Puerto Ricans who speak very little English. And Puerto Rico, which has been hit hard by the economic downturn, might be considered by politicians to be too much of a burden on the national treasury. Plus, Election Day offered a new challenge: Puerto Rico's pro-statehood governor Luis Fortuno appears to have lost his re-election bid to challenger Alejandro Garcia Padilla, an advocate of the island's current national status.

Sources: Miami New Times (2) (3)Slate (2)Deustche Welle

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How Do You Stress the Word: THANKSgiving or ThanksGIVing?
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Here’s something else to stress about for Thanksgiving: where to put the stress in the word Thanksgiving.

If you’re from California, Iowa, or Delaware, you probably say ThanksGIVing, with the primary stress on the second syllable. If you’re from Georgia, Tennessee, or the Texas Panhandle, you probably say THANKSgiving, with the primary stress on the first syllable.

This north-south divide on syllable stress is found for other words like umbrella, guitar, insurance, and pecan. However, those words are borrowed from other languages (Italian, Spanish, French). Sometimes, in the borrowing process, competing stress patterns settle into regional differences. Just as some borrowed words get first syllable stress in the South and second syllable stress in the North, French words like garage and ballet get first syllable stress in the UK and second syllable stress in the U.S.

Thanksgiving, however, is an English word through and through. And if it behaved like a normal English word, it would have stress on the first syllable. Consider other words with the same noun-gerund structure just like it: SEAfaring, BAbysitting, HANDwriting, BULLfighting, BIRDwatching, HOMEcoming, ALMSgiving. The stress is always up front, on the noun. Why, in Thanksgiving alone, would stress shift to the GIVE?

The shift to the ThanksGIVing pronunciation is a bit of a mystery. Linguist John McWhorter has suggested that the loss of the stress on thanks has to do with a change in our concept of the holiday, that we “don’t truly think about Thanksgiving as being about thankfulness anymore.” This kind of thing can happen when a word takes on a new, more abstract sense. When we use outgoing for mail that is literally going out, we are likely to stress the OUT. When we use it as a description of someone’s personality ("She's so outgoing!"), the stress might show up on the GO. Stress can shift with meaning.

But the stress shift might not be solely connected to the entrenchment of our turkey-eating rituals. The thanksGIVing stress pattern seems to have pre-dated the institution of the American holiday, according to an analysis of the meter of English poems by Mark Liberman at Language Log. ThanksGIVing has been around at least since the 17th century. However you say it, there is precedent to back you up. And room enough to focus on both the thanks and the giving.

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Watch Boris Karloff's 1966 Coffee Commercial
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TAKWest, Youtube

Horror legend Boris Karloff is famous for playing mummies, mad scientists, and of course, Frankenstein’s creation. In 1930, Karloff cemented the modern image of the monster—with its rectangular forehead, bolted neck, and enormous boots (allegedly weighing in at 11 pounds each)—in the minds of audiences.

But the horror icon, who was born 130 years ago today, also had a sense of humor. The actor appeared in numerous comedies, and even famously played a Boris Karloff look-alike (who’s offended when he’s mistaken for Karloff) in the original Broadway production of Arsenic and Old Lace

In the ’60s, Karloff also put his comedic chops to work in a commercial for Butter-Nut Coffee. The strange commercial, set in a spooky mansion, plays out like a movie scene, in which Karloff and the viewer are co-stars. Subtitles on the bottom of the screen feed the viewer lines, and Karloff responds accordingly. 

Watch the commercial below to see the British star selling coffee—and read your lines aloud to feel like you’re “acting” alongside Karloff. 

[h/t: Retroist]

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