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Tituba, the Early American Witch

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Barring fictional characters, a slave named Tituba is America's most famous "witch." She was there at Ground Zero in the case of the Salem Witch Trials of 1692. But because she was a slave, her documented biography is sparse compared to other accused witches of Salem.

Photograph by Flickr user ISD 191 Performing Arts Programs.

Samuel Parris returned to Boston from his inherited sugar plantation in Barbados with three slaves, Tituba, John, and an unnamed boy, in 1680. Since this is the first mention of Tituba in the historical record, it is assumed that she was acquired in Barbados, and was somewhere between 12 and 18 years old. Parris was neither married nor a minister then. Parris married in Boston, and the family moved to Salem Village in 1689 so that Samuel could take the position of minister. Tituba and John were married at about that time. Both were referred to in later court documents as having the last name "Indian," which was a convenient and descriptive appendage for the two slaves who had no given surname. Tituba was described as an Indian slave in contemporary documents. At least one historian traced Tituba from the Arawak people of what is now Venezuela, and wrote that she was kidnapped and sold into slavery in the Caribbean as a child.

Tituba was working in the home of the Reverend Samuel Parris and family when the middle child, 9-year-old Elizabeth (called Betty) and her cousin, 11-year-old Abigail Williams, suffered a series of fits, possibly convulsions. The two girls were soon joined by their young friends Ann Putnam and Elizabeth Hubbard, who also exhibited strange fits, visions, and unexplained behavior. No medical reason could be found for the fits (although poisoning through contaminated rye flour has been posited as a possible cause), so the local doctor suggested there might be a supernatural basis for their suffering. One of the girls admitted to the practice of fortune-telling, which immediately threw suspicion on Tituba. However, there is no evidence in contemporary documents that Tituba actually taught the practice to the girls. The four girls named Tituba as one of their oppressors, along with Sarah Good, a mentally ill beggar, and Sarah Osborn, a widow in poor health who was in a dispute with the Putnam family. Once the accusations were leveled, Tituba confessed to all sorts of demonic sins: signing the "Devil's book," flying on a pole, seeing supernatural animals, attacking the girls.

But even though her background is what drew suspicion, none of her confessions were of practices related to the Caribbean, Africa, or voodoo.

The Crucible 2153

Photograph by Flickr user ISD 191 Performing Arts Programs.

One bit of "witchcraft" that can be linked to Tituba is the "witch cake." When Dr. Griggs could not make a diagnosis of the girl's symptoms, Tituba supposedly made a cake using the urine of the afflicted girls baked into rye. The cake was then fed to a dog to see if its behavior changed. This scheme was reportedly carried out on February 25th of 1692, but how the dog reacted was not recorded. It certainly focused more suspicion on Tituba as the witch behind the girls' affliction (by then several more young girls were exhibiting the manifestations). But Tituba didn't come up with the idea or the recipe; it was suggested by a neighbor named Mary Sibley. (Parris later called Mary Sibley out in church about her part in the scheme; she promptly apologized for her error and was forgiven.)

When Rev. Parris heard about the witch cake, he became enraged and beat Tituba. Confronted with evidence of Tituba's supernatural dabbling, he ordered her to confess to being in league with the devil. Eventually, Tituba began confessing to the most outlandish dealings with demons and animals. Modern consensus is that she confessed to make the beatings stop. And once the beating stopped, Tituba agreed to pretty much anything that was suggested to her, and even began to accuse other women of witchcraft, beginning with Sarah Good and Sarah Osborn, who had already been named by the afflicted young girls.

An arrest warrant was issued for Tituba and the other two women on February 29th. From that point, accusations and confessions flew thick and fast, as Salem residents tried to deflect guilt from themselves while passing judgment on those they had problems with. Before the trials were over in the fall of 1692, twenty people had been executed for witchcraft (plus two dogs, as accomplices). A couple hundred people were imprisoned, and five had died while in prison that year, including Sarah Osborn. Sarah Good, the third of those originally accused, was convicted and hanged. Both Sarahs refused to confess to the bitter end.

Over the past 150 years or so, the popular image of Tituba was that she was actually a slave of African descent. There have been several reasons for this shift in thought: Tituba's assumed dabbling in witchcraft, thought by some to be a form of voodoo; her supposed origin in Barbados; and the racial politics of the 19th century, a period in which quite a few fictional and semi-fictional accounts were written of the Salem Witch Trials. The designation of Tituba as black is often explained by stating that the Puritans didn't distinguish the different racial backgrounds of slaves, so her description as "Indian" could have meant anything. But that statement doesn't make much sense. The Puritans did distinguish the different races of their slaves. The unnamed boy who traveled to Boston with Tituba and John Indian was described as "Negro" in contemporary documents (he died before the trials). Another slave accused of witchcraft, Mary Black, was described as a Negro as well -- and she had a conveniently-bestowed last name, just like Tituba Indian.

But what happened to Tituba? Because she confessed, Tituba never went to trial. She sat in prison as the other witchcraft trials went on in Salem. In the fall, when public opinion turned away from accusations of witchcraft, Tituba recanted her testimony. She stayed in prison for 13 months because Rev. Parris, angered that Tituba changed her earlier confession, refused to pay the necessary fees to free her.

The Crucible 1674

Photograph by Flickr user ISD 191 Performing Arts Programs.

A similar fate befell the other two slaves who were accused of witchcraft in Salem. Mary Black steadfastly maintained her innocence, while the slave called Candy readily confessed. Yet the two, who spent some months in jail, were never brought to trial. The case against Mary Black was eventually dismissed, and Candy was pronounced not guilty. It is possible that the three slaves were considered unimportant, as they had no actual power in the community, owned no property that could be seized, and had little opportunity to make enemies. No one bothered to complain about the disposition of their cases.

Eventually, a person whose name was not recorded redeemed Tituba from prison (essentially buying her) and took her away from Salem. It is thought that the same person bought John Indian as well. John and Tituba had a daughter named Violet who stayed with the Parris family until at least 1720, when Samuel Parris died. After being taken from prison (the word "freed" is not appropriate here), Tituba was never heard from again. Many factors came together to cause the witch hysteria of 1692 in Massachusetts: local religious and political tensions, greed, fear and desperation, an imbalance of power, and in the case of the adolescents who started it all, possible illness, hormones, and rebelliousness that got out of hand. In the end, Tituba was shown to be no witch, just a poor, unfortunate soul who happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time.

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iStock / Collage by Jen Pinkowski
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The Elements
9 Diamond-Like Facts About Carbon
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iStock / Collage by Jen Pinkowski

How well do you know the periodic table? Our series The Elements explores the fundamental building blocks of the observable universe—and their relevance to your life—one by one.
 
 
It can be glittering and hard. It can be soft and flaky. It can look like a soccer ball. Carbon is the backbone of every living thing—and yet it just might cause the end of life on Earth as we know it. How can a lump of coal and a shining diamond be composed of the same material? Here are eight things you probably didn't know about carbon.

1. IT'S THE "DUCT TAPE OF LIFE."

It's in every living thing, and in quite a few dead ones. "Water may be the solvent of the universe," writes Natalie Angier in her classic introduction to science, The Canon, "but carbon is the duct tape of life." Not only is carbon duct tape, it's one hell of a duct tape. It binds atoms to one another, forming humans, animals, plants and rocks. If we play around with it, we can coax it into plastics, paints, and all kinds of chemicals.

2. IT'S ONE OF THE MOST ABUNDANT ELEMENTS IN THE UNIVERSE.

It sits right at the top of the periodic table, wedged in between boron and nitrogen. Atomic number 6, chemical sign C. Six protons, six neutrons, six electrons. It is the fourth most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen, and 15th in the Earth's crust. While its older cousins hydrogen and helium are believed to have been formed during the tumult of the Big Bang, carbon is thought to stem from a buildup of alpha particles in supernova explosions, a process called supernova nucleosynthesis.

3. IT'S NAMED AFTER COAL.

While humans have known carbon as coal and—after burning—soot for thousands of years, it was Antoine Lavoisier who, in 1772, showed that it was in fact a unique chemical entity. Lavoisier used an instrument that focused the Sun's rays using lenses which had a diameter of about four feet. He used the apparatus, called a solar furnace, to burn a diamond in a glass jar. By analyzing the residue found in the jar, he was able to show that diamond was comprised solely of carbon. Lavoisier first listed it as an element in his textbook Traité Élémentaire de Chimie, published in 1789. The name carbon derives from the French charbon, or coal.

4. IT LOVES TO BOND.

It can form four bonds, which it does with many other elements, creating hundreds of thousands of compounds, some of which we use daily. (Plastics! Drugs! Gasoline!) More importantly, those bonds are both strong and flexible.

5. NEARLY 20 PERCENT OF YOUR BODY IS CARBON.

May Nyman, a professor of inorganic chemistry at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon tells Mental Floss that carbon has an almost unbelievable range. "It makes up all life forms, and in the number of substances it makes, the fats, the sugars, there is a huge diversity," she says. It forms chains and rings, in a process chemists call catenation. Every living thing is built on a backbone of carbon (with nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, and other elements). So animals, plants, every living cell, and of course humans are a product of catenation. Our bodies are 18.5 percent carbon, by weight.

And yet it can be inorganic as well, Nyman says. It teams up with oxygen and other substances to form large parts of the inanimate world, like rocks and minerals.

6. WE DISCOVERED TWO NEW FORMS OF IT ONLY RECENTLY.

Carbon is found in four major forms: graphite, diamonds, fullerenes, and graphene. "Structure controls carbon's properties," says Nyman.  Graphite ("the writing stone") is made up of loosely connected sheets of carbon formed like chicken wire. Penciling something in actually is just scratching layers of graphite onto paper. Diamonds, in contrast, are linked three-dimensionally. These exceptionally strong bonds can only be broken by a huge amount of energy. Because diamonds have many of these bonds, it makes them the hardest substance on Earth.

Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 when a group of scientists blasted graphite with a laser and the resulting carbon gas condensed to previously unknown spherical molecules with 60 and 70 atoms. They were named in honor of Buckminster Fuller, the eccentric inventor who famously created geodesic domes with this soccer ball–like composition. Robert Curl, Harold Kroto, and Richard Smalley won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering this new form of carbon.

The youngest member of the carbon family is graphene, found by chance in 2004 by Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov in an impromptu research jam. The scientists used scotch tape—yes, really—to lift carbon sheets one atom thick from a lump of graphite. The new material is extremely thin and strong. The result: the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010.

7. DIAMONDS AREN'T CALLED "ICE" BECAUSE OF THEIR APPEARANCE.

Diamonds are called "ice" because their ability to transport heat makes them cool to the touch—not because of their look. This makes them ideal for use as heat sinks in microchips. (Synthethic diamonds are mostly used.) Again, diamonds' three-dimensional lattice structure comes into play. Heat is turned into lattice vibrations, which are responsible for diamonds' very high thermal conductivity.

8. IT HELPS US DETERMINE THE AGE OF ARTIFACTS—AND PROVE SOME OF THEM FAKE.

American scientist Willard F. Libby won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960 for developing a method for dating relics by analyzing the amount of a radioactive subspecies of carbon contained in them. Radiocarbon or C14 dating measures the decay of a radioactive form of carbon, C14, that accumulates in living things. It can be used for objects that are as much as 50,000 years old. Carbon dating help determine the age of Ötzi the Iceman, a 5300-year-old corpse found frozen in the Alps. It also established that Lancelot's Round Table in Winchester Cathedral was made hundreds of years after the supposed Arthurian Age.

9. TOO MUCH OF IT IS CHANGING OUR WORLD.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important part of a gaseous blanket that is wrapped around our planet, making it warm enough to sustain life. But burning fossil fuels—which are built on a carbon backbone—releases more carbon dioxide, which is directly linked to global warming. A number of ways to remove and store carbon dioxide have been proposed, including bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, which involves planting large stands of trees, harvesting and burning them to create electricity, and capturing the CO2 created in the process and storing it underground. Yet another approach that is being discussed is to artificially make oceans more alkaline in order to let them to bind more CO2. Forests are natural carbon sinks, because trees capture CO2 during photosynthesis, but human activity in these forests counteracts and surpasses whatever CO2 capture gains we might get. In short, we don't have a solution yet to the overabundance of C02 we've created in the atmosphere.

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Nicole Garner
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History
How One Widow's Grief Turned a Small Town Into a Roadside Attraction
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Nicole Garner

Like many small towns, the southwest Missouri town of Nevada (pronounced not as the state, but as Nev-AY-duh) loves to tell tales. Incorporated in 1855, the 8000-person city was once a railroad hub and a former home to the outlaw Frank James, the elder brother of the more infamous Jesse James. But the one story Nevada residents love to tell above all others isn't about anyone famous. It's about an atypical above-ground grave in the town's oldest cemetery, the man who's interred there, and how he can't get any rest.

Scan of the Nevada Daily Mail from March 4, 1897.
Nevada Daily Mail; March 4, 1897.
Courtesy of the State Historical Society of Missouri.

On March 4, 1897, the body of a young man was found near Nevada, Missouri, apparently struck by lightning. The local newspaper, the Nevada Daily Mail, printed the story of his death that evening right next to the news that William McKinley had been sworn in as president that day; a bold-faced headline declared "Death Came Without Warning," and noted “His Clothing Torn From His Body." A reporter at the scene described how the body, which was found around 11 a.m., was unrecognizable at first. Eventually the young man's father identified him as Frederick Alonzo "Lon" Dorsa, and the coroner determined that an umbrella was the cause of Lon's electrocution.

Lon left behind a widow whose name was never mentioned in newspapers; to this day, other printed versions of the Dorsas' story omit her identity. But she had a name—Neva Dorsa—and her grief led her to commission a singularly peculiar grave for her husband—one that would open her up to years worth of ridicule and also make their small town a roadside attraction.

A funeral announcement in the Daily Mail noted that undertakers had prepared Lon's body in a "neat casket" before a funeral service set for March 7. A follow-up article the next day read that Lon's funeral was widely attended, with a large procession to the cemetery and burial with military honors. His widow—whose name was determined from a marriage license filed at the Vernon County courthouse showing that Lon married a Neva Gibson on February 12, 1895—had gone from a newlywed to a single mother in just two years.

But, Lon's first interment was temporary. Neva had arranged a grand resting place for her husband, which wasn't ready in the short time between his death and the funeral. Modern newspaper retellings of Lon and Neva's tale say she ordered a large, above-ground enclosure from the Brophy Monument Company in Nevada. A large piece of stone—some accounts say marble while others suggest limestone or granite—was shipped in via railroad car. When it arrived, the stone was too heavy to move, so a local stonecutter spent more than a month chiseling away before the piece was light enough to be pulled away by horses. A wire story described the stone tomb as being "12 feet long, 4 feet wide and 5 feet high. Its weight at completion was 11,000 pounds."

Before Lon’s body was placed inside, Neva made a few key additions—specifically a hidden pane of glass that let her view her husband:

"A piece of stone, covered to represent a bible [sic], is the covering of the aperture. It can be lifted easily by the widow's hand and when Mrs. Dorsa's grief becomes unusually poignant, she goes to the cemetery and gazes for hours at a time upon the face of her dead husband."

The Daily Mail covered the second tomb's installation with morbid attention to detail on May 6, 1897, precisely two months after Lon was initially buried:

"When the grave was opened this morning the coffin looked as bright and new as when buried but it had water in it which had at one time nearly submerged the body. The remains looked perfectly natural and there were no evidences of decomposition having sat in—no odor whatover [sic]. A little mould [sic] had gathered about the roots of his hair and on the neck, otherwise the body looked as fresh as when buried."

The newspaper called the tomb a "stone sarcophagus" and noted that Neva was there to examine her husband's corpse and watch the reburial of his remains. There was likely no inkling from those present, or the community who read about it in that evening's paper, that Neva had designed the tomb with unexpected and usual features, like the pivoting stone Bible that would reveal Lon's face below when unlocked and moved.

Instead, the newspaper suggested that the "costly mousoleum [sic] provided for the reception of his remains is the tribute of her affection."

Lon Dorsa's grave.
Lon Dorsa's grave at Deepwood Cemetery in Nevada, Missouri.
Nicole Garner

Following Lon's re-interment, Neva managed her grief by visiting her deceased husband regularly. Her home was near his grave—the 1900 U.S. Census listed her as a 25-year-old widow living on south Washington Street in Nevada, the same street as the cemetery—and three years after her husband's death, she was employed as a dressmaker, working year-round to provide for their young children, Beatrice and Fred.

By 1905, a new wave of public scrutiny hit the Dorsa (sometimes spelled Dorsey) family when the details of Neva's specially designed, above-ground grave began circulating. It's not clear who reported the story first, but the Topeka Daily Capital, published across the Kansas border 150 miles from Nevada, published a piece, which eventually spread to The St. Louis Republic. Early that spring, the same story was printed in the Pittsburgh Press, a Chicago church publication called The Advance, and in the summer of 1906, a description of Lon Dorsa's crypt had made it nearly 1000 miles to the front page of the Staunton Spectator and Vindicator in Staunton, Virginia:

"The strangest tomb in America, if not in the world, is that which rest the remains of Lon Dorsa in Deepwood cemetery, Nevada, Mo. It is so constructed that the widow can look upon her deceased husband at will, by the turning of a key in a lock which holds a stone Bible just above the remains."

Articles at the time noted that Lon's remains were in an airtight tomb and that scientists supposedly told Mrs. Dorsa that her husband's body would be well-preserved in those conditions, but decomposition had already taken place: "It [the body] has turned almost black, but the general outline of the features remains unchanged."

According to a 1997 walking tour pamphlet of Deepwood Cemetery, it wasn't long before community members caught on that Neva visited the cemetery all too often: "Fascinated children hung about to watch the lady arrive in her buggy. If she saw them, she'd go after them with a whip, shrieking like a madwoman …" the guide stated. Eventually, "her family had the pivot removed and the Bible cemented down."

Local lore suggests that the publicity and Lon's deterioration drove Neva to insanity. Some say she ended up in an asylum and died soon after—a fairly believable tale, considering Nevada was home to one of the state's hospitals for mental illness. However, a list of Deepwood Cemetery lot owners, found at the Vernon County Historical Society, doesn't have a burial space for Neva.

A more likely explanation—based on a listing on Find a Grave, a website that indexes cemeteries and headstones, and which matches Neva's personal information—suggests she simply remarried and moved to California. The California Death Index, 1945-1997, shows that a Neva (Gibson) Simpson died Dec. 30, 1945 in Los Angeles. The birth date and place match those of Neva (Gibson) Dorsa.

Newspaper clipping featuring a picture of a skull.
Nevada Daily Mail, Nov. 30, 1987. Courtesy of the State Historical Society of Missouri.
State Historical Society of Missouri

Wherever Neva ended up, Lon's body didn't exactly rest in peace. In July 1986, vandals broke into the town's most famous tomb and stole his head. It was recovered the following year in a Nevada home, but law enforcement and cemetery caretakers noted that the stone Bible, which had been cemented down for some time, was periodically ripped off the tomb.

Talbot Wight, the Deepwood Cemetery Board’s president at the time, told the Daily Mail in 1987 that Lon's hair, skin, and clothing were well preserved until vandals broke the encasing glass. "Evidently, he was still in pretty good shape until July," Wight said.

But when Lon's skull was photographed for the newspaper's front page, it featured no hair or skin, both of which likely decomposed quickly after being stolen if not before. The skull was buried in an undisclosed location away from the body so as to not tempt new grave robbers, and the tomb was re-sealed with marble in an attempt to prevent further damage.

Still, the story of Neva Dorsa and her husband’s remains hasn't died away. It circulates through southwestern Missouri, drawing visitors to Deepwood Cemetery to gaze at the stone plot—just not in the same way Neva had intended.

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