Before Mad: The History of Educational Comics

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Mad Magazine, the subversive satire-laced magazine best known as the home of Alfred E. Neuman has, in its sixty years of existence, become an American institution. The magazine's original publisher, Educational Comics (EC), was founded by Max Gaines in 1945 and specialized in titles such as Picture Stories from the Bible. But EC eventually gained notoriety and critical acclaim for their line of well-drawn, socially conscious and often gruesome suspense, horror, and sci-fi titles. These comics played a central role in the comics scare of the 1950s, before being killed by the adoption of the Comics Code Authority.

New Trend

Following Max Gaines' death in 1947, EC was taken over by his son William M. Gaines, who took the company in an entirely new direction. In 1950, the younger Gaines began introducing ECs "New Trend" line, which went on to include titles such as the notorious horror comic Tales from the Crypt and in 1952, Mad Magazine.

EC was able to lure some of the best talent in the industry with high pay rates and an encouraging work environment. They began to release stories, many written by Gaines and editor Al Feldstein, challenging contemporary social mores. EC stories such as 1953's "In Gratitude," which appeared in Shock SuspenStories 11, tackled complicated issues that other forms of media didn't touch. The story involved a Korean War veteran returning home to find that his request for the body of his life-saving African American comrade to be buried in his family plot was denied due to racial discrimination. The soldier then condemned his hometown for their prejudice, reminding them that the man had died defending democracy. This story and others like it triggered debate that manifested itself in letters written by readers and published in subsequent issues.

Oh the Horror

Among other socially conscious titles at EC were war titles by Mad co-founder Harvey Kurtzman. These works included Two Fisted Tales and Frontline Combat, which took an anti-war stance that stood out amongst the rest of the industry's glorification of combat.

But it was EC's horror titles that made up the largest percentage of their sales. The first titles of their "New Trend" line, such as Vault of Horror, spawned many imitators that often relied on gruesome covers and equally gruesome content. These soon caught attention of groups advocating against the comics industry.

The most well known of these advocates, Dr. Frederic Wertham, had become a prominent anti-comic book crusader in the late 1940s; he claimed there was a link between juvenile delinquency and comic books. Wertham's work culminated in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which heavily criticized horror comics as well as their more traditional competition. The book prompted th formation of a Senate sub-committee to delve into juvenile delinquency, with a heavy focus on the effect of comics on youth. Gaines voluntarily defended the works he published in front of a Senate panel. Asked to explain his concept of taste as well as the subtleties often evident in EC's works, Gaines was unable to convince the unreceptive sub-committee of their virtues. At one point he was forced to defend the use of racial slurs made by villainous characters in a story that was clearly anti-racist.

Comics Code

In the aftermath of this hearing and before the sub-committee could make their final report, a fearful comics industry formed the Comics Magazine Association of America (CMAA) and through it established the Comics Code Authority. The authority, much like Hollywood's infamous Hays Office, reviewed and approved, with a special seal, books that fit within established guidelines for publishing. Their editorial guidelines included such mandates as, "Crimes shall never be presented in such a way as to create sympathy for the criminal, to promote distrust of the forces of law and justice, or to inspire others with a desire to imitate criminals," and, "Policemen, judges, government officials and respected institutions shall never be presented in such a way as to create disrespect for established authority."

Mad's Rise

EC at first refused to join the CMAA, and for a time struggled without the Code's backing. Mad, which had changed to a magazine format when Kurtzman almost moved to Pageant magazine (and subsequently was no longer subject to the code), continued to sell, and its success helped supplement the publication of poorly selling titles. In 1954, EC attempted to join the CMAA until a title featuring the sweat on the face of a black man, in an anti-segregation sci-fi story, was rejected by the Comics Code Authority. A frustrated Gaines gave up. EC canceled all of their crime and horror titles. And by 1956 all but Mad remained at the publisher.

Mad was originally founded by Harvey Kurtzman at EC to supplement his income when he couldn't match the pace of EC's more prolific editors. The magazine struggled at first until the release of the fourth issue containing the popular Superman parody, Superduperman. Kurtzman established the influential style and satirical format of the magazine, initially taking aim solely at the comics industry before taking on America at large. In 1956, after Kurtzman demanded a 50% ownership share, he was replaced by former EC editor Al Feldstein, editor of EC's own Mad imitator Panic. Mad, under Gaines' ownership, continued championing anti-establishment ideals, until he was forced to sell in 1961. He retained creative control until his death in 1992.

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Big Questions
Where Does the Word 'Meme' Come From?
Steve Jennings/Getty Images for Civic Entertainment Group
Steve Jennings/Getty Images for Civic Entertainment Group

By Jenna Scarbrough

Certain fads, catchphrases, dances, and songs bombard our society—nowadays, almost all of these are either born on or popularized through the Internet. Grumpy Cat, Rickrolling, Left Shark, the optical illusion dress—all of these ubiquitous cultural sensations have this in common. Some of these stick for a while, some don’t. Those that stick are branded as memes. But what exactly is a meme?

In 1976, Richard Dawkins, the English evolutionary biologist, proposed an idea in his book, The Selfish Gene: What if ideas were like organisms, where they could breed and mutate? These ideas, he claimed, are actually the basis for human culture, and they are born in the brain.

Dawkins’s research is primarily in genetics. He has argued that all life relies on replication. But unlike cells, ideas do not rely on a chemical basis for survival. They begin from a single location—the brain—and spread outward, jumping from one vessel to another, battling for attention. Some ideas are more successful, which may be due to an element of truth they carry, while others slowly die out. Some may not be accurate, but society has accepted these ideas for so long that they are just accepted (think about pictures of Jesus or George Washington; while these may not be what they actually looked like, almost all art now portrays these men in the same way).

Dawkins needed a name for this concept. He proposed calling it mimeme, from the Greek word meaning “that which is replicated.” He wrote in his book, “I hope my classicist friends will forgive me if I abbreviate mimeme to meme.” He felt the monosyllabic word would be more fitting because it sounds similar to "gene." “If it is any consolation,” he continued, “it could alternatively be thought of as being related to ‘memory,’ or to the French word même. It should be pronounced to rhyme with ‘cream.’”

Although he probably couldn’t imagine the possibility of Internet memes during his initial research in the ‘70s and ‘80s, Dawkins has now accepted the appropriation. Because it’s still viral, he said in an interview with WIRED, this popularity increase goes right along with his theory that ideas are similar to living things.

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25 Awesome Australian Slang Terms

by Helena Hedegaard Holmgren 

Australian English is more than just an accent, and the Aussie vernacular can easily leave both English speakers and foreigners perplexed. Australian English is similar to British English, but many common words differ from American English—and there are many unique Aussie idiosyncrasies, slang terms, and expressions.

The term for Aussie slang and pronunciation is strine, and it is often characterized by making words as short as possible; the story goes it developed by speaking through clenched teeth to avoid blowies (blow flies) from getting into the mouth. So if you plan to visit the world’s smallest continent, this list of some of the most commonly used slang expressions is for you.

1. Arvo: afternoon

2. Barbie: barbeque

3. Bogan: redneck, an uncultured person. According to the Australian show Bogan Hunters, a real bogan sports a flanno (flannel shirt), a mullet, missing teeth, homemade tattoos (preferably of the Australian Flag or the Southern Cross), and has an excess of Australia paraphernalia. This "species of local wildlife" can be found by following their easily distinguishable tracks from burnouts or the smell of marijuana.

4. Bottle-O: bottle shop, liquor store

5. Chockers: very full

6. Esky: cooler, insulated food and drink container

7. Fair Dinkum: true, real, genuine

8. Grommet: young surfer

9. Mozzie: mosquito

10. Pash: a long passionate kiss. A pash rash is red irritated skin as the result of a heavy make-out session with someone with a beard.

11. Ripper: really great

12. Roo: kangaroo. A baby roo, still in the pouch, is known as a Joey

13. Root: sexual intercourse. This one can get really get foreigners in trouble. There are numerous stories about Americans coming to Australia telling people how they love to "root for their team." If you come to Australia, you would want to use the word "barrack" instead. On the same note, a "wombat" is someone who eats roots and leaves.

14. Servo: gas station. In Australia, a gas station is called a petrol station. If you ask for gas, don’t be surprised if someone farts.

15. She’ll be right: everything will be all right

16. Sickie: sick day. If you take a day off work when you are not actually sick it’s called chucking a sickie.

17. Slab: 24-pack of beer

18. Sook: to sulk. If someone calls you a sook, it is because they think you are whinging

19. Stubbie holder: koozie or cooler. A stubbie holder is a polystyrene insulated holder for a stubbie, which is a 375ml bottle of beer.

20. Sweet as: sweet, awesome. Aussies will often put ‘as’ at the end of adjectives to give it emphasis. Other examples include lazy as, lovely as, fast as and common as.

21. Ta: thank you

22. Togs: swim suit

23. Tradie: a tradesman. Most of the tradies have nicknames too, including brickie (bricklayer), truckie (truckdriver), sparky (electrician), garbo (garbage collector) and chippie (carpenter).

24. Ute: Utility vehicle, pickup truck

25. Whinge: whine

Good onya, mate! Understanding the Aussies should be easy as now.

Additional Sources: Urban Attitude; All Down Under - Slang Dictionary; Australian Words - Meanings and Origins; Australian Dictionary; Koala Net; Australian Explorer; Up from Australia; YouTube, 2; McDonalds.


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