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Music History #10: "Biko"

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Getty Images

“Biko”
Written and performed by Peter Gabriel
(1980)


The Music

As lead singer of Genesis, Peter Gabriel was never an overtly political songwriter. If he touched on it at all, it was usually couched in fanciful language and scenarios. But on his third solo record, he delivered an impassioned tribute to the fallen anti-apartheid leader Stephen Biko.

Gabriel did his research, reading three biographies as well as a book of Biko’s own writings. Even so, he said he felt more like a reporter than an insider. “It’s a white, middle-class, ex-public schoolboy, domesticated, English person observing his own reactions from afar,” he said. “It seemed impossible to me that the South Africans had let him be killed when there had been so much international publicity about his imprisonment. He was very intelligent, well reasoned and not full of hate. His writings seemed very solid in a way that polarized politics often doesn't."

“Biko” reached #38 on the UK charts, and for years was a powerful sing-a-long closer to Gabriel’s live set. The song has been covered by Joan Baez, Simple Minds, and Paul Simon.

The History

Wikimedia Commons

On September 12, 1977, Stephen Biko, an influential leader in South Africa’s “Black Consciousness” movement, died while in police detention. He was 30 years old.

Biko was born in South Africa in 1946, two years before apartheid—enforced racial segregation—was made an official policy of his native country. While studying medicine in college, Biko became active in the anti-apartheid movement. In 1968, he set up the South African Students’ Organization and was elected its first president the year after. By 1972, Biko’s full-time activism got him expelled from medical school, and brought him under scrutiny by the government. They even tried to impose a kind of restraining order on him, preventing him from leaving his hometown. But Biko’s fervor spread, as he set up clinics and community groups to help political prisoners and to assist black students.

Like Martin Luther King, Jr. before him, he was charismatic and eloquent, inspiring his followers to work for peaceful change. And like King, he made a lot of enemies.

When Biko was taken into custody in August 1977, it was the latest in a string of arrests. He was never convicted of a crime, nor accused of inciting violence, but the South African government considered him a growing threat to their regime.

The government’s official line on the cause of Biko’s death was that he starved himself while in prison. But an autopsy revealed that he had been tortured and beaten, and died from massive head injuries. Donald Woods, a journalist and close friend of Biko’s, photographed the body in the morgue and exposed the truth of the police brutality.

There was a trial, but the South African Attorney General said that he would not prosecute any of the officers involved with the arrest. Biko’s injuries were explained away as the self-inflicted wounds of a suicide attempt. Ultimately, the judge dismissed the murder charge because there were no witnesses. After the trial, the police claimed that they had documents proving that he was a terrorist who had been planning sabotage, murder, and riots.

Biko’s death raised world consciousness of the apartheid issue, and laid the foundation for a long, slow march toward the democratic elections and integration that finally took root in South Africa in the early 1990s. In 1987, Stephen Biko’s story was brought to the screen in Cry Freedom, starring Denzel Washington.

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Hulton Archive/Getty Images
The Star Trek Theme Song Has Lyrics
Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

The Star Trek theme song is familiar to pretty much anyone who lived in the free world (and probably elsewhere, too) in the late 20th century. The tune is played during the show's opening credits; a slightly longer version is played, accompanied by stills from various episodes, during the closing credits. The opening song is preceded by William Shatner (as Captain Kirk) doing his now-legendary monologue recitation, which begins: "Space, the final frontier ..."

The show's familiar melody was written by respected film and TV composer Alexander Courage, who said the Star Trek theme's main inspiration was the Richard Whiting song "Beyond the Blue Horizon." In Courage's contract it was stipulated that, as the composer, he would receive royalties every time the show was aired and the theme song played. If, somehow, Star Trek made it into syndication—which, of course, it ultimately did—Courage stood to make a lot of money. And so did the person who wrote the lyrics.

WAIT... THERE WERE LYRICS?

Gene Roddenberry, the show's creator, wrote lyrics to the theme song.

"Beyond the rim of the star-light,
my love is wand'ring in star-flight!"

Why would Roddenberry even bother?

The lyrics were never even meant to be heard on the show, but not because the network (NBC) nixed them. Roddenberry nixed them himself. Roddenberry wanted a piece of the composing profits, so he wrote the hokey lyrics solely to receive a "co-writer" credit.

"I know he'll find in star-clustered reaches
Love, strange love a star woman teaches."

As one of the composers, Roddenberry received 50 percent of the royalties ... cutting Alexander Courage's share in half. Not surprisingly, Courage was furious about the deal. Though it was legal, he admitted, it was unethical because Roddenberry had contributed nothing to why the music was successful.

Roddenberry was unapologetic. According to Snopes, he once declared, "I have to get some money somewhere. I'm sure not gonna get it out of the profits of Star Trek."

In 1969, after Star Trek officially got the ax, no one (Courage and Roddenberry included) could possibly have imagined the show's great popularity and staying power.

Courage, who only worked on two shows in Star Trek's opening season because he was busy working on the 1967 Dr. Doolittle movie, vowed he would never return to Star Trek.

He never did.

THE WORDS

If you're looking for an offbeat karaoke number, here are Roddenberry's lyrics, as provided by Snopes:

Beyond
The rim of the star-light
My love
Is wand'ring in star-flight
I know
He'll find in star-clustered reaches
Love,
Strange love a star woman teaches.
I know
His journey ends never
His star trek
Will go on forever.
But tell him
While he wanders his starry sea
Remember, remember me.

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Ralph Gatti, AFP/Getty Images
The 'David Bowie Is' Exhibition Is Coming to Your Smartphone
 Ralph Gatti, AFP/Getty Images
Ralph Gatti, AFP/Getty Images

"David Bowie is," an exhibition dedicated to the life, work, and legacy of the pop icon, concluded its six-year world tour on July 15. If you didn't get a chance to see it in person at its final stop at New York City's Brooklyn Museum, you can still experience the exhibit at home. As engadget reports, the artifacts displayed in the collection will be recreated in virtual and augmented reality.

The Victoria and Albert Museum, the curator of the exhibit, and the David Bowie Archive are collaborating with Sony Music Entertainment and the sound and media studio Planeta on the new project, "David Bowie is Virtual." Like the physical exhibition, the digital experience will integrate visual scenes with the music of David Bowie: 3D scans will bring the musician's costumes and personal items into the virtual sphere, allowing viewers to examine them up close, and possibly in the case of the outfits, try them on.

"These new digital versions of ‘David Bowie is’ will add unprecedented depth and intimacy to the exhibition experience, allowing the viewer to engage with the work of one of the world’s most popular and influential artists as never before," the announcement of the project reads. "Both the visual richness of this show and the visionary nature of Bowie and his art makes this a particularly ideal candidate for a VR/AR adaptation."

"David Bowie is Virtual" will be released for smartphones and all major VR and AR platforms sometimes this fall. Like the museum exhibition, it will come with an admission price, with a portion of the proceeds going toward the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Brooklyn Museum.

[h/t engadget]

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